The Endeavour Journal of Joseph Banks 1768–1771 [Volume One]
1. Raind this morn very hard, as hard I think as it possibly could; our poor little wild musicians were totaly disturbd by it. In the Even it came on to blow very hard, so much so that the ship drove and for the first time in the Voyage we had 3 anchors down.
2. Still rainy so little could be done today, indeed little rernaind to be done.
3. Fine weather: the ship began to prepare for sailing so the Dr and myself employd ourselves in getting together our last specimens of seeds, shells &c. I stayd at the watering place, he went with the Captn to the farther Heppah who wanted to buy Dry fish for sea stock, and did buy so much that at last the Old men fairly told him that he must go away or he would leave them without provisions, which they enforcd by some threats; matters were however so well conducted that they parted peacably.
One of our gentlemen came home to day abusing the natives most heartily whoom he said he had found to be given to the detestable Vice of Sodomy. He, he said, had been with a family of Indians and paid a price for leave to make his adresses to any one young woman they should pitch upon for him; one was chose as he thought who willingly retird with him but on examination provd to be a boy; that on his returning and complaining of this another was sent who turnd out to be a boy likewise; that on his second complaint he could get no redress but was laught at by the Indians. Far be it from me to attempt saying that that Vice is not practisd here, this however I must say that in my humble opinion this story proves no more than that our gentleman was fairly trickd out of his cloth, which none of the young ladies chose to accept of on his terms, and the master of the family did not chuse to part with.page 462
4. Prevented from sailing by our hay which had been so thoroughly soked by the late rains that it was too wet to put on board. Some conversation passd today concerning a report we heard yesterday. Two of our boats went out different ways and returnd at different times; the people of one said that they had met a double canoe who told them that they had a few days ago lost a female child who they suspected had been stole and eat by some of their neighbours; the other said that they had also met a double canoe whose people told them that they had yesterday eat a child, some of whose bones they sold them. From hence many of our gentlemen were led to conclude that thefts of this kind are frequent among these Indians. This story in my opinion throws very little light upon the subject as I am inclind to beleive that our two boats who went out at very different times in the morn both in the same direction, one only farther than the other, saw one and the same canoe and only differently interpreted the conversation of the people, as they know only a few words of the language, and eating people is now always the uppermost Idea in their heads. This however I must say, that when such families have come off to the ship even with an intention to fight with us they have very often brought Women and young children in arms as if they were afraid to leave them behind.
1 This is certainly garbled. Both Cook and Pickersgill refer to two islands, one of which could be circumnavigated in four days. This must have been Arapawa, which formed a large part of the eastern side of Queen Charlotte Sound, and was cut off from the rest by the narrow Tory Channel. See Cook I, p. 243.
2 This is a different form from the name picked up by Cook, ‘Aeheino mouwe’, but equally puzzling. The conventional name was Te Ika no Maui, ‘the fish of Maui’. The suggestion made to me by Mr J. M. McEwen, that the words heard were He H no Maui, ‘a thing fished up by Maui’, is persuasive for Cook's version. Banks's i in his versions of native words is generally long, as in fine; but if in this case it was the Italian i one could argue that his informant had smothered the Maori k of ika and that what he heard was e i'a no Maui, ‘a fish of Maui’. See aho Cook I, p. 243, n.3.
3 Terawhiti or Tarawhiti. The latter was the Maori name for the south-west corner of the North Island of New Zealand. Te rawhiti, the east, or land to the east—which was the direction in which it lay when the conversation took place.
1 Hawaiki (there is certainly a k elided in Banks's version of this word), the semimythological homeland of all the Polynesian people; cf. Tahitian Havaii. The name turns up with dialectal differences from one end of Polynesia to the other.6
2 This story has caused a great deal of difficulty, and what the old man meant is far from clear. Two large canoes might quite well have come from one of the Polynesian islands some time after the principal Maori migration in the Fleet, and their crews being taken for enemies, have met disaster. According to Cook's version (p. 245) a small vessel came, and four men were killed, which would tally, up to a point, with Tasman's visit—if the small vessel was Tasman's cockboat. But according to Cook again, the old man's information was that this small vessel came from the north, and Tasman did not arrive at New Zealand from the north. To the old man, certainly, one direction might have been as good as another. We do not get much help from the name ‘Olimaroa’; it is not on the map now, and it is not in the list of names of islands which Cook got from Tupaia (pp. 291–3). But the map which Tupaia drew has the names ‘Oremaroa’, roughly north-east of Tahiti, and ‘Olemateroa’, north-west of Tahiti. Oremaroa has no island attached to it. J. R. Forster picked up the name ‘O-Rima-Roa’ somehow on the second voyage (Observations, p. 519) and says it ‘coincides nearly with the situation of the Isles of Disappointment, seen by Admiral Byron in 1765’. These, Napuka and Tepoto, form part of the north-eastern fringe of the Tuamotus. The name seems otherwise unknown. After it appeared in Hawkesworth, one or two fanciful geographers and novelists applied it to Australia, which is absurd. Curiously enough, this happened parficularly in Sweden: see Gösta Langenfelt, ‘Ulimaroa’, in Särtryck ur Festskrift Tillagnad Elias Wessén (Lund 1954).
3 ‘Wind up our bottoms’: this idiom has now vanished from the language; to wind up one's bottom was to bring one's business or temporary occupation to a close, or to ‘clean up a job’.
6. Foul wind continued but we contrivd to turn out and get into the streights, which are to be calld Cooks streights.1 Here we were becalmd and almost imperceptibly drawn by the tide near the land. The lead was dropd and gave 70 fathom; soon after saw an apearance like breakers towards which we drove fast. It was now sunset and night came on apace. The ship drove into this which provd to be a strong tide which set her directly upon a rock to which she aproachd very near,2 when the anchor was dropd which brought her up about a Cables lengh from it; now we were sensible of the force of the tide which roard like a mill stream and ran at 4 knotts at least when it came in its strongest pushes, for it varied much. It ran in this manner till 12 O'Clock, when with the slack water we got up the anchor with great dificulty which lay in 70 fathom, and a light breeze from the Northward cleard very soon from our dangers.
7. Sensible again of the Violence of the tides here which past us in great ripples, even in tlie middle of the streights, tho they were judgd to be 5 leagues over in the narrowest part. A large hill was seen with much snow upon it on the SW side: at noon we were almost abreast of it and clear of the streights, it provd to be so far inland that we could hardly trace its outline so probably it is very high indeed.3 The land between us and it was flat for a large extent but seemd barren and swampy Land, after this barren and sandy and rounded away fast to the Southward; a small smoak upon it in the Even was the only sign of inhabitants that we saw.
1 Who conferred this name we do not know, but may suspect Banks himself. Cook gives no mention to it in his journal, though it appears on the charts. In Grey MS 51 Banks merely writes, ‘the Strait itself was calld Cooks Straight the name of the Capt.’.
2 The rock was off one of the islands Cook called The Brothers.
3 Cook calls this ‘large hill’ a ‘prodegious high mountain’. It was Tapuaenuku, the highest peak of the Kaikoura range, 9460 feet.
8. As some of the officers declard last night that they1 though[t] it probable that the land we have been round might communicate by an Isthmus2 situate somewhere between where we now are and Cape Turnagain (tho the Whole distance is estimated at no more than 90 miles) the captn resolv'd to stand to the Northward till he should see that cape, which was accordingly done in the morning the wind being fair tho but a light breeze. As soon as we were in with the land it appeard more fertile than any we had seen for some time, and the flatts larger,3 but the weather was so hazey that we could not make use of our glasses. About this time 3 Canoes put off from the shore and followd us and had patience to do so till 3 O'Clock, when they overtook us and immediately with very little invitation came on board. They appeard richer and more cleanly than any people we have seen since we were in the Bay of Islands, and their canoes were also ornamented in the same manner as those we had formerly seen on the N and this side of the Island, but have not now seen since the river Thames if even there; they were also more civil in their behavior and on having presents made them immediately made presents to us in return (an instance we have not before met with in this Island). All these things inclind me to beleive that we were again come into the Dominions of Teratu but on asking them they said no he was not their King.
9. Weather rather more clear than Yesterday. On the land white chalky cliffs appeard such as we us'd to see; by 11 O'Clock Cape Turnagain was in sight which convincd every body that the land was realy an Island on which we once more turnd our heads to the southward.
1 MS he: I have altered this to they to match the preceding they, as Cook says (p. 249) ‘a notion which some of the officers had just started’.
2 That is, might be the expansion of an isthmus which joined it to the southern continent. The officers, says Cook, founded their opinion ‘on a suppotision that the land might extend away to the SE from between Cape Turn-again and Cape Pallisser’, though Cook himself was convinced that Aeheinomouwe was an island. One cannot resist a faint suspicion that some of the officers were taking a rise out of Cook.
3 Banks must have been looking up to the Wairarapa plains. Running head ‘off Cape Palliser’.
4 S has the note, ‘Land made in Tables. When the Hills were flat at top’.
11. Calm this rnorn: 2 Canoes came off and sold us a few fish and some of their fishing hooks made upon a peice of wood, which I beleive serves instead of bait in towing as the mother of Pearl does on the Islanders towing hooks.1 Light breeze: the land did not look to so much advantage as when we passd it in our passage to the Northward.
12. This morn the seamen all imagind that we had passd the mouth of the streights when to our surprize the great snowy hill which we had seen on the 7th appeard right ahead. At nigh[t] however we were abreast of the streights which was it not for the hill might be dificult to find in Cloudy weather.
13. Calm which gave me an opportunity of going out in the boat and shooting some Albatrosses. The air today was so hazey that we could scarce see the least traces of land and yet the snow on the top of the mountain was very visible.
1 This was off the point called on the chart Castle Point. The hooks mentioned seem to have been those called by the Maori pa kahawai, used for trolling for the Kahawai (Arripis trutta). The wood was lined with the iridescent paua shell, as a substitute for the mother-of-pearl which Banks had seen in Tahiti.—See Best, The Maori, II, p. 424; Buck, pp. 224–5.
2 The Little or Allied Shearwater, Puffinus assimilis; cf. 15 February 1769. Solander does not record this specimen, but mentions one taken on 6 January 1770, which was not recorded by Banks.
3 The Grey-backed Storm Petrel, Garrodia nereis; cf. 2 October 1769.
4 This was off the small projection of the Kaikoura peninsula, which Cook called ‘Lookers on’ from the concentrated gaze which these Maoris gave the ship. The name has now been transferred to the mountains behind. Banks's running-head is ‘off Cape Campbell’.
15. Calm again: at Noon I went out and shot in less than an hour 6 Albatrosses: had the calm continued I beleive I might have shot 60, but a fair breeze of wind came which made me not much regret the Loss of the rest.
16. Land this morn lookd fertile enough. We had now enterd upon a new Island on which few signs of inhabitants were seen: a fire however made us certain that howsoever thin they might be it was not totaly destitute of them. All day the Weather was very clear. In the morn early Mr Gore imagind that he saw land to the S. Eastward.
17. This morn we were close onboard of the land which made in ridges not unlike the South Sea Islands (between the tropicks); the tops of these were bare but in the Valleys was plenty of wood.1 On the SE part was an opening which had all possible appearance of an excellent harbour;2 near this on the top of a hill we saw two people setting. Mr Gore notwi[th]standing Yesterdays run was of opinion that what he saw yesterday morning might be land, so he declard on the Quarter deck: on which the Captn who resolvd that nobody should say he had left land behind unsought for orderd the ship to be steerd SE.
18. All yesterday, last night and this morn we stood for Mr Gore's land but not seing any and at noon today finding ourselves in Lat. 45. 17 Every body in the ship was convincd, except possibly Mr Gore, that it was impossible to have on the 17th seen as far as where we were now, so we again stood to the Westward. At night it was Haizey and a large shoal of Bottle nosd Porpoises3 were about the ship, soon after which it began to blow brisk but fair.
1 Banks Peninsula, which Cook called Banks's Island, a fact our modest journal-keeper does not mention. The peninsula is an ancient dead volcano: hence the ‘ridges not unlike the South Sea Islands (between the tropicks)’—the ‘high islands’ which were also volcanic in origin.
3 Possibly Tursiops sp.
Tho we saw the land by noon and at that time we had a fresh breeze of Wind, yet it dropping nearly calm soon after we were at night very distant from it. We had however soundings a great way off and the land appeard very high, so that we once more cherishd strong hopes that we had at last compleated our wishes and that this was absolutely a part of the Southern continent; especialy as we had seen a hint thrown out in some books that the Duch, not contented with Tasmans discoveries, had afterwards sent other ships who took the land upon the same lat. as he made it in and followd it to the Southward as high as Lat 64°S.2
1 This paragraph must be read with n. 1 of p. 462, on Topaa's information, in mind. The ‘Indians’ of Queen Charlotte Sound did not say that the South Island could be circumnavigated in three or four days, but that Arapawa could, which was true enough; and Tupaia's opinion that they were liars may be attributed to a certain unjustified measure of intellectual scorn (after all he was an aril and a priest, and the people of the Sound were not high in the economic or educational scale). The space of land unseen was part of the Canterbury coast.
2 It is true that the Dutch were not content with Tasman's discoveries, but what the origin of the rest of this story was I do not know. I suspect some garbling. We do know there was a copy of de Brosses on board the Endeavour, and in de Brosses, I, p. 434 there is the passage: ‘Tasman ne fit que reconnaître cette terre sans y descendre. M. l'abbé Prévot rapportc que les Hollandois l'ont depuis visitée en 1654, sans nous apprendre le nom du navigateur, ni les remarques qu'on peut y avoir faites: au reste il ne faut pas s'arrěter â ce qu'il dit au měme lieu que cette terre s'étend depuis le 44° jusqu'au 64° degré de latitude, c'est-à-dire presque jusques sous le cercle polaire.’ The reference is apparently to the Abbé Prévost's Histoire Générale des Voyages (Paris 1746–70), XI, p. 201. The abbé was more important as a novelist than as a historian. The latitude 64° is no doubt founded on the record of Dirk Gerrards or Gerritsz, who was carried south of Tierra del Fuego by tempest in 1599, possibly to the South Shetland Islands, where ‘the country was mountainous and covered with snow, looking like Norway and seemed to extend towards the Islands of Salomon’. Banks would find that in Dalrymple's Account, p. 2. The South Shetlands, the Solomon Islands and New Zealand might all have been part of the same continent, though de Brosses does not think so.
20. This morn we were close in with the land which appeard flat, sandy and very barren near the shore but rising into high hills inland. We stood in pretty near to it but saw no signs of inhabitants. W[ind] Southerly all day blowing fresh.
21. Weather rather more moderate but still foul so that we saw again today the same part of the coast as yesterday.
22. Still more moderate but will not let us proceed at all to the southward.
23. At noon today calm which gives us hopes that we may have a fair wind. As we have now been 4 days upon nearly the same part of the coast without seing any signs of inhabitants I think there is no doubt that this part at least is without inhabitants.
24. Fresh breeze of wind and fair so we went along shore briskly but kept so far off from it that no observations could be made: we can only say that we did not see any fires, other signs of people we could not have seen by reason of our distance had they been ever so numerous or conspicuous. In the evening the land ahead inclind a good deal to the West. We were now on board of two parties, one who wishd that the land in sight might, the other that it might not be a continent: myself have always been most firm for the former, tho sorry I am to say that in the ship my party is so small that I firmly beleive that there are no more heartily of it than myself and one poor midshipman, the rest begin to sigh for roast beef.
25. Wind whiffling all round the compass, at night settled at SW and blew hard.1
26. Still Blew hard, in some squalls very much so. Thermometer today at noon was 48 which pinchd us a little.
27. Weather a little more moderate but no standing upon legs without the assistance of hands as yet: hope however that the heart of this long-winded gale is broke according to the sea phraze.
1 On the 24th and 25th the ship was off Cape Saunders, which Banks mentions in his running-head.
28. Weather a little more moderate so that we got a little respite and our different occupations went on as usual. Opend today a Cask of Cabbage put up by the receipt p. 210 of this Journal1 which provd most excellently good, scarce at all worse for keeping in my opinion.
1 p. 249 above.