20 April 1872
On Saturday we went on to Tokomairiro (Bloody Plains) and from thence to Balclutha, walking thro a good deal of ploughed land of excellent quality. The road to some of the diggings turned off to the right. Near the Clutha River we visited a Coal Seam, possessing an outcrop of 10 ft of fair coal, apparently Hydrous, - the same sand-stone shewing in various places along our course; - but how so distinct a change from true Lignite (Brown) to true Coal can occur is curious. I believe that the page 96 Coal has been changed by the operation of Water, and that position has favored the change in this instance by this means. The problem is equivalent to that which we have in Wales where a Coal on one side a fault is Anthracite, and on the other Bituminous. New Zealand has a plethora of Coal – for I have omitted to mention the Canterbury Coal at Malvern Hills – so that from North to South, and on the East and West Coasts of both Islands there is available Coal, but scarcely any used at all. The Two Lakes, Kaitangata and Tuatikoto can be easily drained,- and this kind of land is exceedingly rich.