Ethnology of Tongareva
Plate 1.—Preparing Roro and Husking Coconuts.
A, Nahuinga, the wife of Pa, preparing roro. Grated coconut in the kainga wringer and strainer of coconut husk opened out on her hands, ready for folding over and wringing out the fluid; broken wooden bowl (kumete) on left contains grated coconut; round drinking bowl (kumete tatau) on right with broken rim contains expressed roro coconut cream. B, Nahuinga using the wringer with short quick movements to express the roro fluid into the round drinking bowl below, white creamy fluid oozing out between her fingers. C, Pa seated in position for coconut husking with the soles of his feet turned in to support in the erect position the butt of the husker, which he holds in his hand. D, Pa brings the horizontally held nut down sharply on the point with both hands to penetrate a segment of husk on the near side.
Plate 2.—Double Wall Screen and Oven Cover.
A, Double wall screen (pataro mangarua), made of two unsplit sections of coconut leaf (C3270): leaflets from one side have been bent over leaf midrib and interlaced in opposite direction to natural lie of leaflets of opposite side; leaflets are closed and half-turns defining end edges may be observed; plaiting stroke is twilled-two in horizontal rows which are now vertical from position of completed article; braided free tails at each end of middle line have been doubled behind plaiting, but parts may be observed where they have been pushed through from under surface and after a short course pushed through again to conceal knotted ends on under surface; width from midrib to midrib, 30 inches; depth at ribs, 26 inches; depth in middle, 20 inches. B, C, Plaited oven cover of coconut leaf (toto umu) made from long single leaflet-bearing strip doubled over on right to form two crossing sets of wefts (C3272) in twilled-two plaiting stroke with closed leaflets arranged in horizontal and vertical rows, full length at bottom and left but decreasing in length toward right with plaiting. B, upper surface, midrib strip bearing naturally directed dextrals, but owing to doubling over on right, upper layer is sinistral through change in direction: leaflets at lower edge were twisted under left front leaflet; braid finish at upper edge commenced on left and braid tail on right has been bent around to back, pushed through again for a short distance, and then pushed back to leave knot on other side. C, under surface: lower edge shows midrib strip; upper edge shows long course of wefts which join outer plies of braid; free tail doubled back on left, pushed through, and knot pulled back; dimensions, 22 by 15 inches.
Plate 3.—Sitting Mat and Tupono Basket.
A, B, Sitting mat (tapakau) made of two leaflet-bearing strips torn from opposite sides of leaf (C3271). A, upper surface: dextral strip has been placed above sinistral strip; stroke is a twilled-two in horizontal rows with closed leaflets; side margins formed by direct bend without turning surface, and upper finishing edge shows three-ply braid which commenced on right; knot of braid tail is shown on upper left corner where it has been pushed through from other side; lower edge shows twisting forward of leaflets under leaflets in front. B, under surface: lower edge shows two distinct midrib strips and also lower ends of extra leaflets which have been introduced to fill wide inter-weft spaces; upper edge shows long course of set of wefts which have been bent over to form outer plies as braid is plaited from other surface; free braid is shown in right upper corner where it is pushed through to lock knotted end on other side; lower edge, 29 inches; upper edge, 23 inches; depth in middle, 14.5 inches. C, Basket (tupono) of coconut leaf (C3274) with two-strip twisted rim, twilled-two plait in horizontal rows with closed leaflets, and two-course braided bottom with two free tails: commencement of free tails shows at each bottom corner, pushed through to inside; curved rim length, 38.5 inches; bottom length, 27.5 inches; side lengths, 13.5 inches; middle depth, 15.5 inches.
Plate 4.—Coconut Leaf Baskets, Eye Shade, and Perineal Band.
A, Raurau basket (C2854) with unsplit section of midrib forming bottom, check plait with open leaflets and three-ply braided rim; bottom length, 21.5 inches; rim length, 17 inches; middle depth, 10.25 inches. B, Taunga basket (C3273) with two-strip twisted rim, twilled-two plait with closed leaflets, and two-course braided bottom: braided tail of first course at bottom has been doubled in from right and second course pushed through on left to inside; after running up for about two-thirds of depth of basket on left side, knot was pushed through to outside; rim length, 11 inches; bottom length, 8.5 inches; middle depth, 11.5 inches. C, Pare taumata or taumata eye shade (C3275): two midrib strips with untwisted leaflets form forward peak rim; check plait with open leaflets; leaflet ends above plaited in two free braided tails and tied with reef knot to form head band; bottom width, 9.5 inches; top width, 7 inches; middle depth, 10.25 inches. D, Perineal band (maro): wide strip of fibrous textile (stipule) from base of coconut leaf midrib (kaka) knotted at one end to length of lauhala; free end of kaka held against abdomen and attached end passed back between thighs to cover genitals; lauhala strip brought around waist on right of wearer to cross the kaka, carried around on left, and tied at back; free end of kaka then dropped forward over lauhala strip as shown. The maro is no longer used.
Plate 5.—Marae Pillars.
A, Left corner pillar of back line of Rauhara marae, curb stones, and small inclosure containing white coral gravel around pillar; B, side line pillars of marae, growth of ngoso shrub; C, well-cut pillar with paired lateral flanges from side line of Rakahanga marae, curb stones on either side of pillar.
Plate 6.—Features of Maraes.
A, Pillars of marae on Vaiari; B, left side line of Te Reinga marae, cleared on inner side to show curbing and coral gravel; C, recess with lower row of upright slabs and horizontal layers, Te Papa-o-Sokoau marae; D, grave of limestone slabs near Rakahanga marae, low head pillar.
Plate 7.—Marae Platforms.
A, Well-preserved stone platform of Te Reinga marae, upright slabs, paving, and three pillars on back line; B, raised platform of irregular shape with recesses, Te Papa-o-Sokoau marae.
Plate 8.—Bonito Hooks and Drinking Bowls.
A, Bonito hooks with pearl shell shanks and points, and hackles of pigs' bristles: a, back view, lashing of hackle; b, side view, thick head, lashings, and snood; c, front view. B, Drinking bowls (kumete tatau) for roro, rounded bottoms and two projecting lugs, one perforated for suspensory cord and both to give finger support in drinking. a, side view (C2832): diameter at rim on interlug axis, 8.4 inches; cross diameter, 8 inches; axis between lugs does not correspond with longest axis, which is 8.6 inches; suspensory lug is 1.3 inches long, 0.5 inches thick, and projects out from bowl surface for 0.45 inches, and hole 0.2 inches in diameter is bored through middle of base; unperforated lug is 1 inch long, 0.3 inches thick and projects 0.2 inches; rim is bevelled gradually from both sides to blunt edge, outside diameters being about 0.2 inches greater below rim than at rim; thickness of bowl gradually increases from 0.5 inches at level of 0.75 inches below rim to 1 inch at bottom. b, bottom view from outside (C2831): rim diameter of interlug axis, 8.2 inches; cross rim diameter, 7.35 inches; suspensory lug is 1.3 inches long, 0.5 inches thick, and projects 0.45 inches; unperforated lug is 1.2 inches long, 0.4 inches thick, and projects 0.25 inches.page break