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Manual of the New Zealand Flora.

9. Ligusticum, Linn

9. Ligusticum, Linn.

Perennial herbs, often large and stout, usually with aromatic or strong-smelling foliage or roots. Leaves 1–2–3-pinnate or ternately divided; rhachis articulated at the insertion of the leaflets. Umbels compound, rarely simple, usually of many rays; involucral bracts few or many, sometimes wanting. Flowers white or red, polygamous or diœcious. Calyx-teeth small or obsolete. Petals incurved at the tip. Fruit linear-oblong, oblong, or ovate-oblong; carpels rounded or dorsally compressed, each with 5 equal narrowly winged ridges, or one carpel 5–4-winged, the other 4–3-winged. Vittæ. usually numerous in the interspaces in the northern species, seldom more than 1 in each interspace in the southern.

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A genus of from 30 to 40 species, widely distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere, in the Southern Hemisphere confined to New Zealand, with the exception of a few species found in South America and one in Australia. All the New Zealand species are endemic.

A. Leaves 2–3-pinnate or decompound.

* Tall, stout, leafy, 2–4 ft. high or more.
Very tall and stout, 3–6 ft. Leaves 2-pinnate; leaflets ovate-oblong, decurrent at the base; lobes pungent 1. L. latifolium.
Robust, 2–4 ft. Leaves 2–3-pinnate; ultimate segments linear-subulate, pungent 2. L. antipodum.
Stems 3–5 ft., without, milky juice. Leaves 3-pinnate; leaflets ovate; lobes acute; petioles with a hooded ligule 3. L. acutifolium.
Stems 1–2 ft., with milky juice. Leaves 2–3-pinnate; leaflets ovate, cuneate at the base; lobes broad, obtuse; petioles without a ligule 4. L. intermedium,
Stems 1½–2½ ft. Leaves 2–3-pinnate; leaflets oblong, cut into narrow obtuse lobes 5. L. Lyallii.
Stems 1–2 ft. Leaves 2–4-pinnate; leaflets cut into narrow-linear piliferous lobes. Styles slender 6. L. Haastii.
** Small, 4–15 in. high, rarely taller.
Slender, 5–15 in. Leaves flaccid, 2-pinnate; leaflets cut into filiform hair-pointed lobes. Styles short 7. L, brevistyle.
Stout, 5–15 in. Leaves coriaceous, 2–3-pinnate; leaflets cut into linear rigid and pungent lobes 8. L. dissectum.
Very slender, 5–15 in. Leaves membranous, 2–3-ternately divided; leaflets few, flat, linear or filiform, acute 9. L. filifolium.
Stout, 2–6 in. Leaves deltoid, membranous, 2-ternately divided; leaflets cuneate-deltoid, deeply incised 10. L. deltoideum.
Stout, thick, and fleshy, 3–6 in. Leaves few, 2–3-ternately multifid. Involucral bracts like the leaves, very large, overtopping the umbel 11. L. carnosulum.
Slender, spreading, 6–12 in. Leaves 1–2-pinnate; leaflets distant, cut into narrow-linear acute lobes. Umbels simple, 6–10-flowered 12. L. patulum.
B. Leaves pinnate or 3-foliolate.
Stout, 8–24 in. Leaflets large, ovate-deltoid, toothed or lobed; lobes piliferous 13. L. piliferum.
Slender, 2–12 in. Leaflets small, orbicular or flabellate, toothed or incised 14 L. aromaticum.
Small, densely tufted, 1–3 in. Leaves imbricate; leaflets palmately 3–6-lobed, bristle-pointed 15. L. imbricatum.
Stout, depressed, 3–4 in. Leaflets glaucous, ovate, sharply toothed or lobed 16. L. Enysii.
Minute, ½–2 in. Leaflets 1–2 pairs, flabellate, entire or obscurely crenate 17. L. flabellatum.
1.L. latifolium, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 94.—Tall, stout, erect, coriaceous, 3–6 ft. high or more. Stem frequently 3–4 in. diam. at the base, grooved. Radical leaves 1–2 ft. long, coriaceous, deep shining green; petioles long, ¾–1 in. diam., broadly sheathing at the base; blade ovate in outline, 2-pinnate; primary divisions 2–6 in. long, linear-oblong; secondary obliquely ovate-oblong with page 216broad decurrent bases, unequally 3–5-lobed; lobes acuminate, with acicular points and thickened margins; veins reticulate. Bracts very large, with broad concave bases 2–3 in. diam., and smaller folia-ceous tips. Umbels numerous, compound, 2–3 in. diam., diœcious or polygamous; involucral bracts linear, acute. Flowers red. Fruit ⅙ in. long; carpels with 5 ridges, rarely with 4 or 3; vittæ solitary under each furrow.—Kirk, Students' Fl. 200. Anisotome latifolia, Hook. Fl. Antarct. i. 16, t. 8. Calosciadium latifolium, Endl. ex Walp. Ann. ii. 702.

Var. angustatum, Kirk, l.c. —Ultimate segments of the leaves narrower, ¼ in. wide or less, acicular points longer.

Auckland and Campbell Islands: Abundant in moist places throughout the group. December–January.

A noble species, said to occasionally reach the height of 6–8 ft.

2.L. antipodum, Homb. and Jacq. ex Dcne. Bot. Voy. Astrol. et Zél. 63, t. 3.—Stems 2–4 ft. high, very stout, deeply furrowed. Leaves 1–2 ft. long, coriaceous; petiole as thick as the thumb, sheathing at the base; blade oblong, 2–3 pinnate; ultimate segments very numerous, rigid, crowded, 1 in. long, 1/15–1/12 in. broad, linear-subulate, pungent-pointed. Bracts smaller and narrower than in L. latifolium. Umbels numerous, compound, 2 in. diam., diæcious or polygamous; involucral bracts narrow-linear. Flowers red. Fruit ¼ in. long, narrow-oblong; carpels one with 5 wings, the other 3-winged.—Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 94; Kirk, Students' Fl. 200. Anisotome antipoda, Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 17, t. 9, 10. Calosciadium antipodum, Endl. ex Walp. Ann. ii. 702.

Auckland and Campbell Islands, Antipodes Island: Abundant throughout the group, Sir J. D. Hooker, Kirk! December–January.

Almost as fine a plant as the preceding, which is its nearest ally, and from which it is easily separated by the finely divided leave with numerous linear segments.

3.L. acutifolium, T. Kirk in Journ. Bot. (1891) 237.— Stems 3–5 ft. high, stout, deeply furrowed; rootstock as thick as the wrist. Leaves spreading, 2 ft. long or more, 6–9 in. broad, oblong or ovate-oblong, 3-pinnate; segments broad, acute, sharply toothed; petiole stout, finely grooved, the upper part of the sheath free, forming a ligule. Flowers not seen. Fruiting umbels 2–2½ in. diam., dense, compound; rays numerous, about l in. long. Fruit 1 in. long, exceeding the pedicels; carpels one 5-winged, the other 3-winged.—Kirk, Students' Fl. 201.

The Snares: Not uncommon, Kirk! December.

My knowledge of this plant is derived from a single imperfect specimen in Mr. Kirk's herbarium, and in default of further information I have reproduced the description given in the "Students' Flora." It is evidently very close to L. intermedium, but according to Kirk can be distinguished by the ligulate petiole, acute segments of the leaves, smaller umbels and shorter fruits, and by the absence of viscid milky juice.

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4.L. intermedium, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 94.—Stems rather stout, 6–24 in. high, abounding in viscid milky juice. Leaves 6–20 in. long; petiole long, stout, sheathing at the base, with narrow membranous wings; blade coriaceous, oblong to ovate-oblong, 2–3-pinnate; primary divisions 5–8 pairs, 2–4 in. long; leaflets ½–1¼ in. long, rather broad, ovate-triangular, cuneate at the base, sessile or shortly stalked, unequally cut to the middle or below it into broad-linear obtuse or subacute lobes. Umbels few or many, 1½–2 in. diam., compound, polygamous or diæcious; involucral bracts linear-lanceolate. Flowers white. Fruit ¼–⅓ in. long, linear-oblong; carpels with 5 narrow wings, or one with 5 and the other with 4 wings.—Kirk, Students' Fl. 201. Anisotome intermedia, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 89.

Var. oblongifolium, Kirk, l.c. —Leaves narrower, linear-oblong, seldom more than 2 in. broad; segments more numerous, crowded, narrow-linear, subacute.

South Island: Sounds of the south-west coast of Otago, from Martin's Bay to Preservation Inlet and Puysegur Point, Lyall, Buchanan! Kirk! G. M. Thomson! South-east coast at Catlin's River and the Nuggets, Petrie! Stewart Island: Not uncommon, Petrie! Kirk! Var. oblongifolium: Inland base of the Ruggedy Range, Kirk! December–January.

5.L. Lyallii, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 95. —Usually taller and stouter than L. intermedium. Stem 1½–2½ ft. high, 1–2 in. diam. at the base, purplish, obscurely grooved. Leaves 1–2 ft. long, linear-oblong, 2–3-pinnate; primary divisions 6–10 pairs, 1–4 in. long, linear-oblong; leaflets crowded, l in. long, oblongcuneate, cut to the base into linear obtuse lobes 1/12 in. broad. Umbels numerous at the top of the stem, compound, many-flowered; involucral bracts linear. Fruit ¼–⅓ in. long, linear-oblong, longer than its pedicel; carpels much as in L. intermedium.Kirk, Students' Fl. 201. Anisotome Lyallii, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 88.

South Island: Sounds of the south-west coast, Lyall, Hector and Buchanan! G. M. Thomson! December–January.

This only differs from L. intermedium in the slightly larger size and more finely divided leaves, and might well be regarded as a variety.

6.L. Haastii, F. Muell. ex Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 95.— Dark-green, very aromatic. Root stout, tapering, as thick as the finger. Stems 1–2 ft. high, rather stout, purplish, grooved. Radical leaves 6–20 in. long; petioles long, grooved, sheathing at the base; blade linear-oblong to ovate-oblong, membranous, 2–4-pinnate; primary divisions 8–12 pairs, the lower smaller and remote; leaflets ½–¾ in. long, deeply cut into numerous crowded linear lobes ¼–½ in. long, 1/30–1/25 in. wide, with short or long hair-like points. Cauline leaves or bracts much smaller, with very broad inflated sheathing petioles. Umbels diæcious, usually numerous, page 2181–2 in. diam., compound, the lower ones on long peduncles, forming a terminal open panicle; involucral leaves linear-subulate, shorter than the rays. Flowers white. Fruit ovoid-oblong, ⅕–¼ in. long: carpels 5-winged.—Kirk, Students' Fl. 201.

South Island: Not uncommon in mountain districts from Nelson to Southland, especially within the influence of the western rainfall. 1500 ft. to nearly 5000 ft. December–January.

A handsome and graceful plant, easily recognised by the finely divided membranous leaves with hair-pointed lobes. Mr. Petrie sends a variety from Mount Tyndall with the lobes almost capillary, with much longer hair-points.

7.L. brevistyle, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 95.—Stems 6–18 in. high, slender, grooved. Radical leaves 4–12 in. long; petiole somewhat rigid, shortly sheathing at the base; limb linear-oblong in outline, rarely broader and ovate-oblong, 2–3-pinnate; primary divisions 6–10 pairs; leaflets cut down to the rhachis into 3–5 distant very narrow-linear lobes ¼–¾ in. long with short acicular tips. Umbels few, 1–8, loosely panicled, compound, diæcious; involucral bracts filiform, shorter than the rays. Fruit on very short pedicels, oblong, ⅛–⅙ in. long; carpels with 5 narrow wings; styles very short.— Kirk, Students' Fl. 202.

South Island: Canterbury—Upper Waitaki and head of Lake Hawea, Haast! Otago—Lake district, Hector and Buchanan! Kurow, Mount Ida, Cromwell, and other localities in eastern and central Otago, Petrie! 800- 3500 ft. December–January.

Closely related to L. Haastii, but a much smaller and more slender plant, with more sparingly divided leaves, smaller fruit, and shorter styles.

8.L. dissectum, T. Kirk, Students' Fl. 202.—Rather stout, coriaceous, 5–15 in. high. Rootstock thick, covered with the ragged bases of the old leaves. Radical leaves 3–12 in. long, coriaceous but hardly rigid; petiole half the length or more, with a long and narrow sheath; blade ovate-oblong or ovate-lanceolate, 2–3-pinnate; primary pinnæ 4–9 pairs, 1–2 in. long; secondary closely placed, ternately or pinnately cut into numerous linear pungent-pointed segments ¼–1 in. long and about 1/20 in. wide. Umbels compound, few or many in an open branched panicle; primary rays numerous, 10–20; involucral bracts linear or lanceolate, acuminate. Fruit linear-oblong, ⅛ in. long; carpels 5-winged.

North Island: Mount Holdsworth and other high peaks of the Tararua Range, Buchanan! T. P. Arnold! W. Townson! December–February.

An imperfectly known species, perhaps more nearly allied to L. piliferum than to any other, but differing widely in the much more divided leaves.

9.L. filifolium, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 95.—Slender, grassy, very aromatic. Stems 6–20 in. high, smooth, striate, often much branched above. Leaves 4–15 in. long, thin and often flaccid; petioles very long, slender, sheathing at the base, sheaths short and broad, membranous; blade very variable in size and shape, terpage 219nately divided into narrow-linear flat acute segments ½–1½ in. long and varying in width from filiform to ⅓ in., the broadest sometimes toothed or lobed at the tip. Umbels few, compound, dioecious, on long slender peduncles; rays slender, very unequal, ½–2 in. long; involucral bracts few, short, subulate-lanceolate. Fruit ⅓ in. long, linear-oblong, compressed; carpels thin, 5-winged, lateral wings broader than the dorsal.—Kirk, Students' Fl. 203.

South Island: Mountain districts from Cook Strait to the south of Canterbury, not uncommon. 1000–4500 ft. December–January.

10.L. deltoideum, Cheesem. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiv. (1882) 299.—Small, stout, dark-green and shining, very aromatic, 2–6 in. high. Rootstock stout, clothed with pale chaffy scales. Leaves numerous, all radical, membranous, 2–4 in. long; petiole half the length, sheathing at the base; blade broadly deltoid in outline, ternately or 2-pinnately divided; leaflets ⅕–⅓ in. long, cuneate-deltoid, deeply 3–5-lobed; lobes flat, very narrow linear-subulate, acute or acuminate Flowering-stems short, seldom exceeding the leaves. Umbels small, ½–1 in. diam., compound; rays 4–8, slender, very unequal; involucral bracts short, linear-subulate. Flowers white or pink. Ripe fruit not seen.—Kirk, Students' Fl. 203.

South Island: Grassy slopes on Mount Arthur, Nelson, altitude 4000–5500 ft., T.F.C.; Mount Stokes, Marlborough, Macmahon! December–January.

Close to L. filifolium. but distinguished by the smaller size, more numerous leaves with copious divisions, differently shaped leaflets, and short flowering stems, which rarely exceed the leaves.

11.L. carnosulum, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 96. — Small, 3–6 in. high, thick and fleshy, glaucous-green. Root stout, often as thick as the little finger, tortuous among shingle. Stems usually short, tapering downwards. Leaves 1–3 near the top of the stem or from the root, very thick and fleshy; petiole ½–2 in. long, with a short broad sheath; blade 1–3 in. diam., 2–3-ternately multifid, ultimate segments ¼–⅔ in. long, 1/15–1/10 in. broad, very narrow linear, acute or subacute, curved, obscurely jointed on the rhachis. Umbel solitary, compound, large for the size of the plant, 1½–4 in. diam.; involucral bracts about 5, 2–3-ternately divided like the leaves, overtopping the umbel; rays numerous, rigid, almost woody in fruit, ½–1 in. long. Secondary umbels small, concealed among the bracts of the involucels, which far exceed the small white or pink almost sessile flowers. Calyx-teeth acute, prominent. Styles rigid, subulate. Fruit oblong, ¼ in. long; carpels incurved, with 5 low obtuse ridges, commissural face rounded; vittæ 1 under each furrow and 2 on the commissure.— Kirk, Students' Fl. 203.

South Island: Bare shinge-slopes on the mountains of Nelson and Canterbury, not common. Wairau Gorge, T.F.C.; Mount Captain, Kirk! Lake page 220Tennyson, T.F.C.; Mount Torlesse, Haast! Petrie! T.F.C.; mountains by the upper and middle Waimakariri, Enys! Petrie! Cockayne! 3000–6000 ft. December–February.

A very remarkable plant, which cannot be confounded with any other found in New Zealand.

12.L. patulum, T. Kirk, Students' Fl. 203.—Slender, greyish-green, 6–12 in. high or more. Stems erect or inclined, branched above, grooved. Radical leaves 2–6 in. long, linear-oblong in outline, pinnate or rarely 2-pinnate; leaflets 4–7 pairs, cut down to the rhachis into narrow-linear acute lobes, which are again toothed or incised at the tips, rarely entire. Cauline leaves smaller, with fewer leaflets and narrower lobes. Umbels small, simple in the very imperfect specimens seen, on slender peduncles, 6–12-flowered;. involucral bracts linear, with a broad base, usually shorter than the unequal pedicels. Ripe fruit not seen.

South Island: Canterbury—Limestone cliffs near Burke's Pass, J. B. Armstrong! Otago (?) Buchanan!

There is a fragmentary specimen of this species in Mr. Kirk's herbarium, and another (without locality) in Mr. Buchanan's. The material is far too incomplete to form the basis of a satisfactory diagnosis; and that given above will doubtless require amendment when a good series of specimens is obtained.

13.L. piliferum, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 96.—Stout, erect, glaucous-green, very aromatic. Root thick and tapering. Stem 8–24 in. high or more, sparingly branched above, smooth, striate, purplish below. Leaves 4–16 in. long, very thick and coriaceous; petioles stout, sheathing, sheath long and narrow; blade linear or linear-oblong, pinnate; leaflets 8–12 pairs, ½–1 in. long, sessile, closely placed and often overlapping, deltoid-ovate or deltoid-orbicular, coarsely toothed or 2–3-lobed or pinnatifid; lobes or segments again toothed, tipped with a stout bristle. Umbels 2–4, on stout peduncles towards the top of the stem, 2–3 in. diam., compound, diœcious: rays ¾–1½ in. long, unequal; involucral bracts linear or lanceolate. Flowers white, rather small. Fruit ⅙ in. long, ovate-oblong; carpels usually 3-winged.—Kirk, Students' Fl. 204.

Var. a.—Leaflets broad, very coriaceous, usually deeply 3-lobed; the lobes broad, toothed.

Var. b, pinnatifidum, Kirk, l.c. — Leaflets longer and narrower, not so coriaceous, pinnatifidly cut into narrower lobes.

South Island: Not uncommon in mountain districts from Nelson to the west of Otago. 2500–4500 ft. December–January.
14.L. aromaticum, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 96.—Very aromatic, variable in size and habit, usually from 4–12 in. high, but in alpine situations often much dwarfed, matted and depressed, sometimes barely 2 in. high. Root stout, often long and tapering. Stem simple or sparingly branched above. Leaves all radical, page 221numerous, 1–6 in. long, coriaceous or almost membranous; petiole short, stout, broadly sheathing at the base; blade linear, pinnate; leaflets 6–12 pairs, ⅕–½ in. long, deltoid-ovate or orbicular or broadly flabellate, more or less toothed or incised, sometimes pinnatifid or even again pinnate; lobes and teeth usually ending in a short or long bristle-like point. Umbels small, diœcious, compound, in. diam.; males usually longer and more open than the females; rays slender, unequal, ½–2 in. long; involucral bracts few, small, linear-subulate. Fruit linear-oblong, ⅛ in. long; carpels 5-winged.— Kirk, Students' Fl. 204. Anisotome aromatica, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 89.

Var. incisum, Kirk, l.c. —Larger and more membranous, 12–20 in. high. Leaflets flabellate or rhomboid, 3-partite almost to the base; segments deeply incised, spreading.

Var. Ianuginosum, Kirk, l.c. — Leaf-segments tipped with copious long snow-white hairs, sometimes almost concealing the leaves.

North and South Islands: Abundant in mountain districts from the East Cape to Foveaux Strait. Altitudinal range 1500–6500 ft. November–February. Var. incisum: Broken River, Canterbury, Kirk! Var. lanuginosum: Mountains above Lake Tekapo, T.F.C.; Hector Mountains, Mount Pisa, Mount Cardrona, and other localities in Central Otago, Petrie!
15.L. imbricatum, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 97. — Small, much branched, densely tufted, forming large flat or convex patches. Stems stout, 1–3 in. long, densely clothed with numerous closely imbricating coriaceous shining leaves. Leaves ¼–¾ in. long; petioles very short, with large broad membranous sheaths produced upwards into a hooded ligule; blade with a broad flattened rhachis and 4–8 pairs of closely placed often imbricating leaflets; leaflets sessile, palmately 3–6-lobed; lobes terminated by a stout bristle longer than the lobes. Umbels small, simple or compound, sunk among the leaves; involucral bracts few, linear-subulate. Fruit broadly ovoid; carpels 5-winged.— Kirk, Students' Fl. 205.

South Island: High peaks from Nelson and Marlborough to Southland, not uncommon. 4000–6500 ft. January–February.

A very remarkable little plant, easily known by its small size, densely tufted habit, imbricated leaves, short peduncles sunk among the leaves, and broad fruit.

16.L. Enysii, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. ix (1877) 548.— Small, stout, depressed, glaucous-green, seldom more than 4 in. high. Root stout, often very long. Leaves all radical, 1½–3 in. long, spreading or decurved, thick and coriaceous when fresh, linear or linear-oblong, pinnate; leaflets 3–6 pairs, ⅕–⅓ in. long, sessile, ovate or ovate-orbicular, sharply toothed or lobed; lobes again cut, not piliferous; petioles with very broad short sheaths. Flowering-stems 2–4 in. long, simple or forked, decumbent. Umbels. page 222compound; rays 2–5, slender, spreading, unequal, ¼–¾ in. long; bracts 2–3, connate almost to the tips into a broad cup-shaped involucre. Partial umbels 3–6-flowered. Fruit ovoid, ⅛ in. long; carpels with 5 obscure ridges.—Students' Fl. 205.

South Island: Canterbury—Limestone shingle in the Broken River basin, Enys! Kirk! T.F.C. Otago—Naseby, Petrie! 1500–2500 ft. December–January.

17.L. flabellatum, T. Kirk, Students' Fl. 205. — Minute, ½–1½ in. high. Leaves all radical, ¼–1 in. long, coriaceous, linear, pinnate; leaflets 1–3 pairs but sometimes reduced to a single one, ⅕–⅓ in. diam., flabellate or orbicular-rhomboid, rounded at the tip, sessile, entire or minutely sinuate-crenate; margins recurved; petioles rather stout, with broad sheathing bases. Umbels small, compound, on short peduncles rarely exceeding the leaves; rays 3–4; general involucre apparently wanting; partial involucre of 3 broad connate bracts open on one side. Fruit broadly oblong or ovate; carpels 4- or 5-winged, not seen quite ripe.

Stewart Island: Crevices of syenitic rocks near the South Cape, Kirk!

A very curious little plant, nearest to L. Enysii, but amply distinct. The 3-lobed partial involucre is quite unlike that of any other New Zealand species.