Manual of the New Zealand Flora.
2. Trichomanes, Smith
2. Trichomanes, Smith.
Ferns, usually of small size. Rhizome slender or rather stout, often much branched, glabrous or tomentose. Fronds compound or rarely simple and entire, of the same delicately membranous texture as Hymenophyllum, often pellucid, usually of a single layer of cells, rarely of 3–6 layers. Ultimate segments linear or narrow-oblong, entire or rarely toothed at the margin, with a stout central costa. Sori marginal, terminal or lateral, more or less immersed in the frond or quite free, always terminating a vein. Indusium tubular or trumpet-shaped, truncate at the mouth or with a narrow spreading lip or border, usually of the same texture as the frond. Receptacle elongated, filiform or columnar, usually exserted beyond the indusium. Sporangia sessile, depressed, surrounded by a broad complete horizontal ring, bursting transversely.
A genus of about 90 species, of almost precisely the same geographical range as Hymenophyllum, and agreeing with it in habit and in the delicate texture of the frond, but differing in the shape of the indusium, which is cylindrical or urceolate, and either truncate at the mouth or very shallowly 2-lipped. Of the 7 species found in New Zealand, 4 appear to be endemic, 2 occur in the Polynesian islands, one of them extending as far north as Java, the remaining one is found in Australia and Tasmania.
* Fronds simple and entire.
Fronds 2–4 in. diam., broadly reniform with a deep sinus 1. T. reniforme.
** Fronds small, ½–4 in. long, usually pendulous, delicately membranous, pinnately or 2-pinnately divided; divisions comparatively few.
Fronds ¾–1½ in., digitately or flabellately divided, margins ciliatedwith branched rufous hairs. Indusium ob-conical, immersed 2. T. Lyallii. Fronds1–3 in., dull dark-green, irregularly 2-pinnatifid, segments with a single unbranched costa 3. T. humile. Fronds 1–4 in., pale-green, irregularly 2-pinnatifid, costa of the segments giving off numerous dichotomous veinlets 4. T, venosum. Fronds 1–4 in., dark-green, 2–3-pinnately divided rhachis not winged. Segments very narrow-linear, acute costa not branched 5. T. Colensoi.
*** Fronds larger, 4–9 in. long, rigidly erect, subcoriaceous, 3–4-pinnatifid; divisions numerous.
Fronds lanceolate, pale yellow-green; ultimate segments narrow-linear, obtuse 6. T. strictum. Fronds ovate - deltoid, dark - green ultimate segments broad, oblong, incised at the tips 7. T. elongatum.
|1.||T. reniforme,Forst. Prodr. n. 462.—Creeping over the ground in moist forests, or clothing the trunks of trees and rotten logs. Rhizome stout, hard, rigid, wide-creeping; rootlets woolly. Stipes 2–8 in. long, erect, wiry, glabrous. Fronds 2–4 in. broad, quite entire, broadly reniform with a deep sinus, dark-green and translucent when fresh, brown and almost horny when dry, flat or undulate, glossy, quite glabrous; veins radiating from the base, numerous, close, prominent, repeatedly dichotomous, spurious venules wanting. Sori very numerous, crowded, often encircling the whole of the margin of the frond. Indusium narrow cup-shaped or almost bell-shaped. Receptacle far-exserted, stout, columnar, covered with sporangia.—A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. 95; A. Cunn. Precur. n. 228; Raoul, Choix, 38; Hook. Sp. Fil. i. 115; Exot. Ferns, t. 2 Hook, and Grev. Ic. Fl. t. 31; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. ii. 16 Handb. N.Z. Fl 356 Hook, and Bak. Syn. Fil. 73 Thoms. N.Z. Ferns, 46; Field, N.Z. Ferns, 68, t. 2, f. 3. Crepi-domanes reniforme, Presl.
North and South Islands, Stewart Island, Chatham Islands: From the North Cape southwards, abundant in damp woods, except on the eastern side of Canterbury and Otago, where it is rare and local. Sea-level to 3000 ft.
A very distinct and beautiful species, quite unlike any other. The frond differs from that of all the other species in having from 4 to 6 layers of cellules. It is confined to New Zealand, its reported occurrence in Australia (Handb. N.Z. Fl. 747) not having been confirmed.
|2.||T. Lyallii,Hook, and Bak. Syn. Fil. 77.—Small, pendulous, very delicate, clothing the trunks of trees in damp forests. Rhizome branched, creeping, capillary, sparingly clothed with simple or stellate red-brown hairs. Stipes 1–2 in. long, very slender, filiform. Fronds ¾–1½ in. long and broad, deltoid or sub-orbicular in outline, delicately membranous and diaphanous, digi-tately or flabellately divided almost to the base. Segments simple or dichotomously branched, linear, obtuse, flat, minutely denticulate margins ciliated with branched rufous hairs. Sori few or many to a frond, deeply sunk in the tips of the segments. Indusium obconical, the width of the mouth about equalling the depth of the tube; margins ciliated, not dilated nor bordered. Receptacle included.— Thoms. N.Z. Ferns, 45 Field, N.Z. Ferns, 70, t. 5, f. 4. Hymeno-phyllum Lyallii, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. ii. 16; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 355.
North and South Islands. — From the Great Barrier Island and Cape Colville southwards, not uncommon in dense moist forests, but rare or absent on the east coast of the South Island, plentiful in Westland and the south-west of Otago. Stewart Island Mount Anglem, Kirk.Sea-level to 3000 ft.
Exactly intermediate between Trichomanes and Hymenophyllum, so far as the structure of the indusium is concerned. It is purely a matter of taste as to which genus it should be referred to.page 944
|3.||T. humile,Forst. Prodr. n. 464.—Small, pendulous from the faces of rocks or bank-sides. Rhizomes much branched, slender, creeping, intermatted. Stipes short, slender, ¼—½ in. long, winged almost to the base. Fronds 1–3 in. long, ¼–⅔ in. broad, lanceolate or linear-oblong, quite glabrous, membranous, dark dull-green, irregularly 2-pinnatifid; rhachis winged throughout. Pinnæ ascending, forked or again pinnatifid. Ultimate segments linear, flat, obtuse, quite entire, a single costa in each segment, spurious venules wanting. Sori solitary, sunk in the tip of a short lateral segment and on the upper side of a pinna near its base. Indusium tubular or trumpet-shaped mouth expanded, shortly 2-lipped. Receptacle usually exserted as a long capillary bristle.—Hook, and Grev. Ic. Fil. t. 35; Hook. Sp. Fil. i. 123; Hook. f. Ft. Nov. Zel. ii. 16; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 356 Hook, and Bak. Syn. Fil. 80; Thorns. N.Z. Ferns, 46; Field, N.Z. Ferns, 70, t. 5, n. 8.
North Island Prom the North Cape southwards, not uncommon in dark woods. South Island: Nelson — Happy Valley, A. Grant.Marlborough— Queen Charlotte Sound, Banks and Solander.Canterbury—Banks Peninsula, Armstrong.Sea-level to 2000 ft.
Also in Java and the Pacific islands.
|4.||T. venosum,R. Br. Prodr. 159.—Pendulous, usually clothing the trunks of tree-ferns. Rhizome long, slender, branched, wide-creeping, densely tomentose. Stipes ½–2 in. long, very slender, capillary, naked. Fronds 1–4 in. long, ¾–1½ in. broad, linear or lanceolate to oblong, very delicate and membranous, translucent, pale-green, shining, quite glabrous, pinnate; rhachis broadly winged above, naked below. Pinnæ 4–8 pairs, very variable in shape and amount of cutting, from linear and undivided to rhomboidal-lanceolate and deeply and irregularly pinnati fid. Segments or lobes flat, obtuse, irregularly sinuate; costa flexuous, with numerous alternate once or twice dichotomous secondary veinlets. Sori generally solitary on each pinna and sunk in a short lobe on the upper margin near the base, but in specimens with broad lower pinnæ there may be 2–4 sori placed irregularly on both the upper and lower margins. Indusium tubular; mouth dilated all round, entire or very slightly 2-lipped. Receptacle usually exserted, capillary.—A. Cunn. Precur. n. 229; Raoul, Choix, 38 Hook. Sp. Fil. i. 132; Hook, and Grev. Ic. Fil. t. 78 Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. ii. 17; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 357 Hook, and Bak. Syn. Fil. 82; Benth. Fl. Austral. vii. 702; Thorns. N.Z. Ferns, 47 Field, N.Z. Ferns, 71, t. 14, f. 4. T. venustulum, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xii. (1880) 366.
Kermadec Islands, North and South Islands, Stewart Island, Chatham Islands Abundant in moist forests throughout. Sea-level to 2500 ft.
Also in south-eastern Australia and Tasmania. Mr. Colenso's T. venustulum is simply a small state with broader lower pinnæ sometimes bearing 2–4 sori.page 945
|5.||T. Colensoi,Hook. f. Ic. Plant, t. 979.—Pendulous from rocks or from the trunks of trees. Rhizome wide-creeping, branched, capillary, more or less tomentose. Stipes short, slender, naked. Fronds rather distant, 2–5 in. long, ½—1 in. broad, oblong-lanceolate or linear-oblong, acuminate, quite glabrous, membranous, dark-green, 3-pinnatifid; rhachis slender, not winged. Primary pinnae 5–12 pairs, remote, shortly stalked, pinnate at the base, pinnatifid above. Ultimate segments very narrow-linear, acute, quite entire; a central costa only in each segment. Sori solitary on the upper side of a pinna near its base and thus appearing axillary, erect, stipitate, quite free. Indusium tubular, the mouth slightly dilated. Receptacle usually exserted as a long capillary bristle—Fl. Nov. Zel. ii. 17 Handb. N.Z. Fl. 357 Hook. and Bak. Syn. Fil. 85 Thoms. N.Z. Ferns, 47; Field, N.Z. Ferns, 71, t. 22, f. 3.
North Island Auckland—Ravines at Mamaku, near Rotorua, J. Stewart!Lake Waikaremoana, Colenso!Taranaki—Mount Egmont Ranges, J. M. Brame.Wellington—Tararua Ranges, Buchanan!South Island Nelson—Near Col-lingwood, Travers, Ball!Takaka Valley and West Wanganui, Kingsley.Canterbury—Banks Peninsula, Armstrong.Westland—Near Okarito, A. Hamilton!Otago—Vicinity of Dunedin, Buchanan! A. Hamilton!Lake Wanaka, Haast.Sea-level to 3000 ft.
Well distinguished by the finely cut fronds with distant pinnæ and very narrow-linear acute segments. Its nearest ally is the South American T. capillaceum,L.
|6.||T. striatum,Menz. ex Hook, and Grev. Ic. Fil. t. 122.— Rhizome very short, erect or inclined, stout, woody, emitting many long wiry rootlets. Fronds numerous, crowded at the top of the rhizome. Stipes 2–4 in. long, stiff, erect, terete, naked or narrowly margined above, furnished with a tuft of red-brown bristles at the base. Fronds 3–6 in. long, 1½—2½ in. broad, lanceolate or linear-oblong, acuminate, rigidly erect, yellowish-green, 3–4-pinnatifid; rhachis narrowly winged throughout or the wing evanescent in the lower part. Primary pinnae close-set, lanceolate, ascending or spreading, the lower sometimes reduced in size secondary pinnatifid. Ultimate segments narrow-linear, flat, entire, glabrous; texture firm; costa stout, unbranched. Sori usually not very numerous, terminating short segments near the base of the upper margin of the secondary pinnae. Indusium quite free, erect, funnel-shaped, mouth dilated all round. Receptacle exserted, capillary.— A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. 95; Hook. Sp. Fil. i. 136; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. ii. 17 Handb. N.Z. Fl. 356; Hook, and Bak. Syn. Fil.(edit. 2) 466 Thorns. N.Z. Ferns, 47. T. leptophyllum, A. Cunn. Precur. n. 232 Raoul, Choix, 38. T. Cunninghamii, Van der Bosch.T. rigidum var. strictum, Field, Ferns N.Z. 72, t. 28, f. 3.
North Island Damp forests from Hokianga southwards to Wellington, bat far from common. South Island Nelson—Massacre Bay, Lyall, Travers page 946Takaka and West Wanganui, Kingsley.Westland—Kumara, J. M. Brame!Okarito, A. Hamilton!Ofago—Dusky Sound, Hector and Buchanan.Stewart Island: Ulva, rare, Kirk.Sea-level to 3000 ft.
Confined to New Zealand, but very closely allied to the widely spread T. rigidum,Swartz.
|7.||T. elongatum, A. Cunn. Precur. n. 231.—Rhizome short, stout, erect or inclined, clothed with the bases of the old stipites; rootlets many, rigid and wiry. Fronds 4–8 at the top of the rhizome. Stipes 3–9 in. long, stout, rigid, terete, rough below and furnished at the very base with a tuft of linear bristles, not winged above. Fronds 3–8 in. long, 1½–3 in. broad, ovate-deltoid, acuminate, rigid, dark olive-green, often coated on the upper surface with mosses and hepaticæ, 2–3-pinnatifid; main rhachis scarcely winged except at the very top. Primary pinnæ close, rhomboidal-lanceolate, pinnate at the base, pinnatifid above secondary imbricating, oblong-cuneate, deeply incised or pinnatifid. Ultimate segments or lobes rather broad, usually incised, at the tips, the teeth acute; veins stout, branching, one to each tooth. Sori numerous, in the axils of the lobes of the secondary pinnæ. Indusium narrow funnel-shaped, quite free mouth scarcely dilated, entire or very slightly 2-lipped. Receptacle stout, rigid, exserted.— Raoul, Choix, 38 Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 701 Sp. Fil. i. 134; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. ii. 17; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 356. T. rigidum var. elongatum, Hook, and Bak. Syn. Fil. 86; Thoms. N.Z. Ferns, 48; Field, N.Z. Ferns, 73, t. 16. f. 2.T. polyodon, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxviii. (1896) 618.
North Island Dark woods, abundant to the north of the East Cape, from thence rare and local southwards to Cook Strait. South Island Nelson — Collingwood, D. Grant;Takaka and West Wanganui, Kingsley.Marlborough —Queen Charlotte Sound, Banks and Solander.Canterbury—Banks Peninsula, Armstrong.Sea-level to 2500 ft.
Closely allied to the widely distributed T. rigidum,Swartz, and considered to be a variety of it by Mr. Baker and other pteridologists. But the frond is broader and more deltoid, the rhizome is not creeping, and the stipes and rhachis quite wingless; the pinnæ are more imbricate and less divided, and the segments are broader and shorter. It is also found in the New Hebrides.