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The Cyclopedia of New Zealand [Wellington Provincial District]

Trade Societies

Trade Societies.

Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners (Wellington Branch). This Society is one of the most powerful trade societies in the world. Its headquarters are in Manchester, England, and branches have been established in almost every country. The membership in 1895 was 44,900. The Australasian headquarters are in Sydney. The officers of the Wellington branch are:—Messrs. J. Hatchard (president), F. W. Scott (secretary, Wallace Street.) The members number eighty-four, and meetings are held fortnightly, The entrance fees range from 7s. 6d. under 25 years, to 15s. at 40 years. The entrance to the trade section—that is, those over 40—is 5s. The subscriptions are 1s. per week, and 9d. per quarter for contingencies. Anyone who has served an apprenticeship to the carpentering trade, and who is passed by the doctor may become a member. The Society's benefits are numerous and liberal. Members when unemployed get 10s. a week for the first twenty-six weeks, and 6s. per week after that time till employed again. When sick, members get 12s. per week for twenty-six weeks, and 6s. thereafter as long as they are ill. In case of an accident they get £50 if partially disabled, and £100 if totally disabled. The allowance during a strike is 15s. weekly. If a member loses his tools, he may get them replaced up to the value of £20, and will be allowed £1 in addition for a tool chest. The superannuation benefit allows a member 7s. a week for life after eighteen years' membership, and 8s. a week for life after twenty-five years' membership if the receiver is capable of earning only half-pay. At death a member's heir or survivors may get £12. When a member's wife dies before him, he is allowed £5 for her funeral expenses. Members in financial distress may get grants from the contingent fund when required. The Wellington Branch has also a medical club, whereby doctor's attendance and medicines for a member and his family is secured by payment of £1 per annum, in addition to the ordinary subscriptions. A feature of the Society is the equalisation of the funds held by the branches every two years, and that the Society as a whole with its united financial resources, stands responsible to its branches.

Mr. James Henry Hatchard, President of the Wellington Branch of the Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners, was born in Huntingdonshire in 1848. He served his time in London with Messrs. Baker Bros., and worked as a journeyman for various firms till 1877. In that year he came to New Zealand in the ship “Opawa” Landing in Lyttelton, Mr. Hatchard started work in Christchurch, where he followed his trade for a number of years. He has since worked in various places in the Colony, and settled in Wellington in 1885. He is employed in the Public Works Department as a joiner. Mr. Hatchard joined the Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners in 1872, at Lambeth, England. During his twenty-four years' membership he has held office many times. When the Colonial Executive of the Society was in Christchurch he was its president. He is respected as an experienced and valuable officer of the Wellington Branch.

Mr. Frank W. Scott, Secretary of the Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners, was born in Blenheim in 1865, and was educated at Nelson and Wanganui. Leaving school at about fifteen years of age, he was engaged for some three years as clerk in his father's timber yard at Wanganui. He afterwards learnt the carpentering trade with Messrs. Murdoch and Rose, Wellington, with whom he worked for six years. He has since worked for various employers. Mr. Scott is an Oddfellow, and was at one time a prominent member of the D Battery, which he represented in different rifle association meetings in the Colony, winning numerous prizes for marksmanship. In 1891 Mr. Scott was married to Miss Sinclair, the granddaughter of one of the first Wellington settlers. He has held the position of branch secretary since 1892.

Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants of New Zealand (Wellington Branch). Any permanent employee on the Government or Manawatu Railways may be a member of this branch of the Society. page 547 The rules formulated by the Executive in Christchurch have been adopted. The objects of the Society are to protect railway employees, to encourage mutual help, to promote harmony, and to make the service more efficient. An allowance is made on the death of a member, periodical calls of one shilling being made to provide for the payment. Destitute members can obtain a loan from the branch funds if misfortune overtake them. The officers (1896) are:—Messrs. H. Thomas (Chairman), W. Austin (vice-Chairman), T. M. Lucy (Secretary), D. T. Skinner (Treasurer), Messrs. McSweeney and Whittem (Auditors), Messrs. Waters and Connett (Trustees), Messrs. G. Smith, R. Styles, W. Robertson, J. Hosie, Gilpin, Carberry, and Connett (Committee). The Branch, which has 100 members, holds monthly meetings.

Mr. T. M. Lucy, Secretary of the Railway Servants' Society (Wellington Branch), was born in Wadebridge, Cornwall, in 1871, his father being engaged in the Inland Revenue Service. The subject of this sketch was educated at Hereford, at Truro College, and at Launceston. Leaving college at seventeen, he joined his uncle in business as a portable manure manufacturer, remaining two years. After studying for another year, with the object of entering the Inland Revenue Service, he came to New Zealand. Landing in Wellington on December 28, 1891, Mr. Lucy went on to Napier, and was employed on a fruit farm. In September, 1892, he was appointed storeman at Waipukuran Railway Station. Just a year afterwards, he was transferred to Wellington, as clerk to the Foreman of Works, the duties of clerk to the Inspector of Permanent Ways being subsequently added. In cycling circles, Mr. Lucy has been very prominent. He holds the Wellington Cycling Club's 20 mile championships for 1894 and 1895, and gained the gold medal attached each year. He also won the Quinton Cycle Cup, for winning this event twice in succession. Mr. Lucy rides an Imperial Rover, and has won over 30 prizes, including 13 firsts, in cycle races in Wellington.

The Australasian Institute of Marine Engineers is composed of seagoing engineers. It is a Society of considerable strength and influence, and includes the officers in charge of the engine-rooms of the numerous steamships which trade to and around the Colony. The majority of its members are men of good education and of advanced thought. The head office of the Institute for New Zealand is at No. 10 Queen's Chambers, Wellington, and there are branches at Dunedin and Auckland, whilst the head office for Australia is in Sydney, with branches at Melbourne, Adelaide, and Brisbane, The business of the Society is conducted in private. The officers are:—Mr. A. Kelly (president), Messrs. W. Signal, L. Martin, and J. Moyes (vice-presidents), and Mr. A. R. Hislop (secretary). The whole of the seagoing engineers on the New Zealand and intercolonial trade are members of this fine institution, which is affiliated and in regular communication with the Amalgamated Society of Engineers (which is also a powerful body), and the Institute of Marine Engineers and the Marine Engineers Union, both of Great Britain. The Australasian Institute of Marine Engineers is not a benefit society in the common acceptation of the term, although engineers find it to their advantage to become members for purposes of defence and mutual support, and hence the membership is constantly increasing.

Building Trades Labourers' Union. This Union was organised by Mr. Harry Warner, in February, 1896. Any working man engaged as a labourer in connection with the building trade may become a member, the entrance fee being 2s. 6d. and the subscription 3d. a week. Thirty members have been already enrolled. The officers are:—Messrs. J. Hamilton President) and H. Henderson (Secretary.)

Mr. Harry Warner, organiser of the Building Trades Labourers' Union and the Wellington Operative Carpenters' Union, was born in 1853, at Henley-on-Thames, where his father was a builder. The subject of this sketch was educated under the old National School system, and was a pupil teacher for three years in the Henley-on-Thames National Schools. Leaving school at about 15, because he disliked teaching, he learnt the carpentering trade with his father. In 1870, he went to London, and immediately became a Unionist, joining the Lisson Grove branch of the General Union of Carpenters, in 1871. Nine years later, he joined the Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners. While in London, he was for four years a district delegate and representative on the London United Trades Committee. Prior to the election of a General Secretary for the Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners, Mr. Warner was deputed to visit Birmingham, Manchester and Liverpool, in the interests of the London candidate. As Secretary to the North Paddington Liberal Association, Political Secretary of the John Bright's Working Men's Club, General Secretary of the Excelsior Radical Club, and Representative of the Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners to the London Technical Instruction Committee, he has had a large experience. Mr. Warner came to New Zealand in 1885, and immediately became prominent in labour circles by espousing the cause of the compositors in the Otago Daily Times strike shortly after his arrival. He filled the office of Dunedin Secretary for the Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners. The Dunedin Building Trades' Union, which numbered at one time over 800 members, was organised by Mr. Warner, who was its Secretary. Owing to the great maritime strike, he was compelled to leave Dunedin and come to Wellington, where he has resided since 1892. He represents the Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners on the Eight Hours' Federated Union, and still takes an page 548 active part in Union and political matters. He is in the employ of the Public Works Department.

The Federated Seamens' Union of New Zealand (Wellington Branch). Officers, Messrs. A. H. Hindmarsh (President), S. Telfer (vice-President), W. Whiteford (Treasurer), and W. Jones (Secretary). These constitute the Executive of the Branch, and Messrs. B. Bern, S. Scott, and J, Ashdown are the Committee of Management to act with the Executive. The Federated Seamen's Union was founded in 1880, the Wellington Branch being established five years later. The Union has about 800 members in the South Island; the Wellington Branch has a roll of 240, and the numbers are steadily increasing. The Union has now begun to recover from the effects of the strike of 1890. The debts then incurred have been paid, and a balance on the credit side is now reported. It has been registered under the Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act of 1894. The Executive and Committee of the Branch are charged with the duty of watching the interests of seamen, and now that the Act of 1894 is in operation it is expected that difficulties will be amicably settled as they arise.

Mr. William Jones, Secretary of the Wellington Branch of the Federated Seamen's Union, was born in Liverpool, in 1866. He was educated at Queen's College, in his native place, and after a short time in a solicitor's office, he went to sea. Soon after completing his apprenticeship, Mr. Jones passed his examination as second mate, and subsequently gained a first officer's certificate. He has had many experiences afloat and ashore, having been shipwrecked three times; and burnt out twice—once at sea and once on shore. Mr. Jones has made voyages in the ship “Melrose Castle,” the barques “St. Cuthbert,” “Jessie Reedman,” “Lutterworth,” “Rebecca,” “Alexander Newton,” and “Tibernia,” and the barquentines Mr. William Jones “May Newton” and “St. Kilda.” For some time he was quartermaster on the s.s. Rotomahana; on August 29th, 1890, with many others, he went on strike from the s.s. Takapuna. On January 1st, 1891, he shipped on board the s.s. “Mawhera,” remaining two years. He subsequently found casual employment on the Queen's Wharf, till May, 1895, when he was appointed to his present office. Mr. Jones is also Secretary of the Wellington Branch of the New Zealand Workers' Union.

Knights of Labour (Wellington Local Assembly, No. 2192). This Assembly was organised in February, 1890. The meetings are held every alternate Wednesday, in the Rechabite Hall, Manners Street. The M.W. is Miss Lee, Lambton Quay, and the Recording Secretary Mr W. Hildreth, Lorne Street, Wellington.

The New Zealand Bookbinders and Paper-rulers Trades' Society, registered under the Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act to 1894. Executive officers: Messrs. W. Naughton (president), W Fountain (treasurer), and F. Chinchen (secretary); Messrs. V. O'Brien, J. H. Lankshear and T. Stace (committee). Established in August, 1889, this Society is colonial in extent and has a membership of thirty-three. Its objects are to foster and encourage, and afford assistance to its members in case of need under certain conditions.

Mr. F. Chinchen, Secretary of the New Zealand Bookbinders and Paper-rulers Trades' Society, hails from London, where he was born in 1853. He accompanied his parents to Australia, when very young, and was educated in Sydney and Brisbane. Mr. Chinchen served his apprenticeship in Sydney, and arrived in the Empire City in 1870. After finding employment in the page 549 offices of Mr. Burrett and Messrs. Lyon and Blair, he entered the Government Printing Office in 1878, and has since been on the permanent staff. Mr. Chinchen has been associated with the Society since its inception in 1878, and was elected secretary at its first meeting—a position which he has retained ever since.

New Zealand Society of Coachmakers. Officers, Messrs. C. King (President), T. Cooper (Secretary), and W. Fitchett (Treasurer). This Society was formed in 1890. Its objects are to defend its members in matters affecting their trade, but the social element has been most prominent, several friendly meetings of employers and employed having been held under its auspices.

Mr. T. Cooper has been Secretary of the Society since 1892. He came to Wellington in 1885, and has ever since been in the employ of Messrs. Rouse and Hurrell.

New Zealand Workers' Union (Wellington Branch. Officers, Messrs T. Long (President), J. Johnson (vice-President), R. Patton (Treasurer), W. Jones (Secretary), A. Munroe, C. Oberg, J. Kench, J. T. Meek, J. Goodall, and W. O. McFadden (Committee). The headquarters of the New Zealand Workers' Union are at Waimate (Canterbury). Its objects are to endeavour to settle disputes and differences between employers and employees, and to guard the interests of the workers generally. The Wellington Branch was founded in October, 1895, and already has a membership of 144. An Annual Conference is held, at which the delegates from all parts of the Colony take part. The proceedings of the 1895 Assembly are published in a neat little pamphlet of thirty-three pages.

The Trades' Union Council was established in 1887. The members of the executive for 1896 are Messrs. H. C. Jones (president), W. Miles (vice-president), R. E. Vaney (secretary), and C. S. Smith (treasurer). The delegates are:—Messrs. W. Miles, W. Hutchinson, W. E. Shelton, W. Worth, Murphy and Heron, (Bootmakers' Union); H. C. Jones, R. E. Vaney, W. P. McGirr, A. Grigg, G. Purdy and T. MeIntyre, (Typographical Union); A. Ward, F. Rogers, C. Lamb, F. Costello and G. Swanson, (Tailors' Union); A. Collins, G. Harris and Mowbray, (Bakers' Union); W. Naughton, A. Osborne and Hall, (Bookbinders' and Paper-Rulers' Society); T. Jaffray, E. Seager and P. Brown, (Boilermakers' Union; C. S. Smith and Skinner, (Tailoresses' Union); The objects of the Council as set forth in the rules are, to act as a board of conciliation and arbitration for settling and disputes between unions represented on the association, and for settling any dispute between employers and employed which may be submitted to it for consideration. To endeavour by a discrect and steadfast policy to secure the best possible advantages for all classes of labour over which the Association is designed to watch. To discuss, decide, and to put into force any scheme that may be brought forward for the better guidance and encouragement of Trades' Unionism. To use its influence in support of or in opposition to any bills effecting labour which may be brought before the Parliament of New Zealand. The number of unions affiliated to the Council is seven:—The Wellington Typographical Society, the Operative Bootmakers' Society, The Operative Tailors' Society, the Operative Bakers' Union, the Boilermakers' Union, New Zealand Bookbinders and Paper-rulers' Society and the Tailoresses' Union.

Mr. H. C. Jones, President of the Trades' Union Council, was born at St. Pancras, London, in 1861. He came to the Colony with his parents when but five years of age, Mr. H. C. Jones landing in Auckland, where he was educated. After serving his apprenticeship at the offices of the Southern Cross and New Zealand Herald, he entered the Government Printing Office, Wellington, as compositor in 1879, and is still employed there. For about sixteen years past Mr. Jones has taken a keen interest in trade organisations. He commenced his career as a member of the Board of the Typographical Society of Wellington. He has also filled various positions such as chairman and also secretary of the late Press Library, vice-president of the Typographical Society, secretary of the Trades' Union Council for three years, and secretary of the Trade and Labour Council conferences—at Wellington (1893), Auckland (1894), Christchurch (1895). Mr. Jones now holds the offices of president of the Trades' Council, and of the Typographical Society, secretary of the Ballance Memorial Committee, acting-secretary to the Worker's Political League, and as a member of the Wellington District Conciliation Board under the Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act. 1894.

Mr. William Miles, Vice-President of the Wellington Trades Council, was born at Southbrook, Canterbury, in 1865. He served his apprenticeship as a bootmaker to Mr. W. Bridget, Rangiora. After completing his term in 1883, he was for some time in the country districts where he gained general experience. In February, 1889, Mr. Miles settled in Wellington and obtained employment as a finisher in the factory of Messrs. R. Hannah and Co., where he still remains. Immediately on his arrival in the Capital he joined the Bootmakers' Society, and within two months he was appointed one of the committee. Mr. Miles has been twice elected president of the Society, and was appointed minute secretary before taking up his duties as secretary in 1892. He has retained the position he now holds continuously since his appointment. Four times in succession Mr. Miles has represented the Union at conferences with employers at Christchurch. On the Bootmakers' Union affiliating with the Trades Council he was elected a delegate, and shortly afterwards became vice-president of the Council. Mr. Miles has a seat on the committee of the Eight Hours Demonstration in the interests of his Union. He takes an page 550 interest in the co-operative movement, and has been a director of the No. 1 Co-operative Building Society since its inception in May, 1894.

Mr. Charles Salmon Smith, Treasurer of the Trades' Union Council, hails from London, where he was born on the 8th of June, 1871. He accompanied his parents to the Colony when in his third year, the family arriving by the ship “Araby Maid,” at Lyttelton. Mr. Smith served his time with Messrs. Hobbs and Co., of Cathedral Square, Christchurch. He remained several years with the same firm as a journeyman after completing his term, and removed to Wellington in 1892. Since settling in the capital, Mr. Smith has found steady employment at the Tailoring Department of the D.I.C. He at once joined the Wellington Tailors' Union, and was soon after appointed a delegate to the Trades' Union Council. In April, 1895, he was elected Treasurer of the Council.

Mr. R. E. Vaney, Secretary of the Trades' Council, was born in Auckland in 1865. He was educated at the Patea High School, and served his apprenticeship partly at the Patea Mail office, and partly at the office of the Wanganui Chronicle. Coming to Wellington in 1887, Mr. Vaney secured employment at the printing establishment of the New Zealand Times, and has had steady work up to the time of writing. For the past seven years Mr. Vaney has been a prominent member of the Wellington Typographical Union, and has acted as a member of the Board of Management for three years, and for a like period filled the office of vice-president of the same Association. After acting as a delegate of the Typographical Union on the Trades' Council, Mr. Vaney was elected in June, 1895, to the important office of secretary. He is also a delegate from his society on the Eight Hours Union.

Mr. Allan Ward, Ex-President of the Trades' Union Council, was born at Littleport, Isle of Ely, Cambridgeshire, in 1871. page 551 Mr. Allan Ward Educated in London, he accompanied his parents to New Zealand in 1876, and served his apprenticeship to the tailoring trade. In 1883 he settled in Wellington, and two years later became a trade unionist. He was elected president of the Tailors' Union in 1892, and occupied that position for four years. Mr. Ward was sent to the Trades' Council as a delegate soon after its establishment, and became treasurer, vice-president, and president successively. He filled the latter office for three years, an evidence of the confidence reposed in him by his fellow-delegates. At three conferences of Trades' Councils, Mr. Ward attended as a representative, and was elected chairman of the one held in Wellington in 1893. On the Eight Hours' Demonstration he has had a place, and has shown a keen interest in the proceedings for the last four years. Among other offices, Mr. Ward has held the position of secretary of the Operative Tailors' Society, and of the Tailoresses' Union, chairman of the Anti-Chinese League, of the Ballance Memorial Committee, and vice-president of the Citizens' Institute. He is well known in the Colony in consequence of his connection with various public movements in the Empire City.

United Employees' Society of Boilermakers, & Iron Shipbuilders of Wellington, New Zealand. This society which is registered under the Act, was formed in 1884. The officers are:—Messrs. T. H. Quinn, president: R. Dalton, vice-president; T. Jaffray, secretary, Hankey Street; T. Thompson, treasurer; F. Norris, guardian, E. I. I. Le Roy, Jas. Williamson and John Eraser, trustees. All boiler-makers and iron ship-builders may become members. The entrance fee is £1 and the subscription 6d. a week. Members when out of work are not expected to pay subscription. The society which is affiliated to the Trades' Council has thirty members, and meets fortnightly. The standard wages for members is fixed at ten shillings a day, and members are not allowed to work with non-unionists. Mr. T. Jaffray, the secretary, was born in Aberdeen in 1852, and came to New Zealand in 1875. He resided for a time in Dunedin, but for over thirteen years has lived in Wellington.

Wellington Carriers' Union. Officers (1896): Messrs. D. P. Fisher (Patron), A. Orr (President), W. Standen and W. Wilson (vice-Presidents), R. Galvin) (Treasurer), W. H. Tobin (Secretary), W. Queeree, E. Johnson, W. Chatfield, G. H. Brown, E. Martin, N. Nelson, S. Jones, and G. Barnes (Committee). Although the youngest Trades' Union, this Society has been instrumental in doing a great deal of good. It was started on the 7th of March, 1895, in consequence of certain abuses on the wharf. Its objects, as disclosed by the rules, are to correct abuses, to initiate reforms, to assist in enforcing the by-laws of local bodies in vehicular traffic, to provide accident and legal expense funds, to support schemes calculated to benefit members morally, socially, politically, and intellectually, and to assist members in difficulties. General meetings of the Union are held quarterly, and the annual meeting takes place in March. When Mr. H. Beauchamp was first elected to a seat on the Harbour Board, the Union supported his candidature, and ninety expresses bore placards soliciting votes for that gentleman on polling day. The Union, which is registered under the Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act of 1894, was the first to bring an action for arrears and entrance fee in which judgment was obtained.

Mr. Allan Orr, President of the Wellington Carriers' Union, was born at Geelong, Victoria, in 1853. He came to New Zealand with his parents when but ten years of age. His father was one of the first to settle at Miller's Flat, Otago, where for many years Mr. Orr was engaged in farming, gold digging, and other pursuits. On leaving, in 1883, he was the recepient of a ten guinea English lever watch, suitably inscribed, with a silver chain and pendant; and one hundred and fifty persons assembled at the farewell spread to do him honour, especially with reference to the great interest he had taken in charitable institutions. Mr. Orr was for seven years in Christchurch, during four of which term he was storeman to Messrs. Hopkins and Co., of Ferry Road; and afterwards he was in business as a tea dealer, in High Street, for about two years. He has long taken an interest in Trades' Unionism and in Friendly Societies, filling the office of vice-President of the Woolston-Lyttelton Amalgamated Friendly Societies' Fête, and holding office in the Druids' and Oddfellows' Societies. Since coming to Wellington in 1890, Mr. Orr has been for four years storeman to Mr. Flcokton, but lately has devoted himself to the occupation of an expressman. He has been a prominent member of the Excelsior Lodge of Druids in which he passed through all the chairs. Mr. Orr is a man who has the courage of his opinions, and is ever ready to espouse the cause of anyone who is wronged or oppressed. He has often been successful in bringing pressure to bear on those in authority in the interests of the suppression of abuses. Mr. Orr is the indefatigable Secretary of the Anti-Chinese League, which is supported by the whole of the Trades Unions of Wellington.

Wellington Eight Hours Federated Union. The founder of the eight hours system” was Samuel Duncan Parnell, carpenter and joiner, who was born in London on the 19th of February, 1810, and died in Wellington, New Zealand, on the 17th of December, 1890. Securing an allotment of land from the New Zealand Company, he came to Wellington in 1840, and settled on the Hutt River, near Petone. Immediately after his page 552 arrival, Parnell was asked to build a store for Mr. Hunter, well known in Wellington. This he consented to undertake on the condition that the hours of labour should not exceed eight per day. Considerable objection was taken to this proposal, as the hours in London at that time were practically from daylight to dark. Parnell held out, and eventually his conditions were accepted. There were very few carpenters in the settlement at the time, and Parnell easily persuaded them to stipulate for an eight hours day when employed. Attempts were made by employers to prevent the eight hours system being generally accepted, but Parnell stuck to his guns, and the system became established. The first strike that occurred in New Zealand was in defence of the “eight hours system,” about 1841. The men engaged in making the present road from Wellington to Petone would only work eight hours a day, and because they were ordered to work more, threw down their tools. The concession was made, and work resumed, Labour thus scoring its first win, and establishing a precedent that tens of thousands of workers in the colonies have since been grateful for. On the 28th of October, 1890, a trades' demonstration was held throughout the Colony. That in Wellington was known as an Eight Hours Demonstration. After an imposing procession had marched through the City, a great gathering of workers took place in Newtown Park. At this gathering, Parnell, who was made the hero of the occasion, was presented with an illuminated address in recognition of his fatherhood of the eight hours system. In his reply, Parnell said the eight hours day was the outcome of his early convictions, and he hoped to see it become the law of every nation in the world. Parnell died a few weeks after, and was accorded a public funeral. In spite of heavy rain, over three thousand people attended, and the coffin was carried to the grave by relays of workmen, the Garrison Band playing the Dead March in Saul. The ceremony at the grave was a most impressive socialistic ceremony, conducted by Mr. J. Chantrey Harris. The committee that carried out the Eight Hours Demonstration formulated a scheme for the lasting commemoration of the eight hours system, and the Eight Hours Federated Union was established. The Union consists of four delegates from each of the following Labour bodies, viz:—Trades' Council, Typographical Society, Tailors' Union, Operative Bakers' Society, Bootmakers' Union, Tailoresses' Union, Boilermakers' and Iron Shipbuilders' Society, and Bookbinders' Society (the foregoing societies being also affiliated to the Trades' Council, the Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners, Operative Carpenters, Painters, Plumbers, Building Trades Labourers, Marine Engineers, Amalgamated Engineers, Carriers, Seamen's, Furniture Trades, and New Zealand Workers' Unions. The objects of the Federated Union are to procure for the members of the Trades and Labour Unions from time to time composing the Union, eight hours a day, or forty-eight hours in a week, as a maximum of labour; generally to promote the acceptance of the principle of eight hours labour; and to carry out an annual demonstration with reference to the observance of such principle. The registered office of the Union is at the Trades' Hall, Queen's Chambers, Wellington. Members of trades not organised may be admitted as delegates by vote of the Union. There is no entrance fee or subscription. A procession with emblematical tableaux, and field sports, is held by the Union on the second Wednesday in October every year. The principal events at the sports are the Eight Hours Handicap for a fifteen guinea cup and £20 added, and the Bicycle Handicap for a cup and £15 added. The officers of the Union for 1895 were:—The Hons. Sir Robert Stout, K.C.M.G., R. J. Seddon, and W. P. Reeves (patrons), Messrs. A. Collins, J.P., (president), C. Lamb and T. H. Hogg (vice-presidents), A. J. Bishop (secretary), A. R. Hislop (treasurer), J. H. Heaton and E. Tregear (trustees), D. P. Fisher (founder and life member).

Mr. David Patrick Fisher, the founder of the Eight Hours Federated Union, was born in Dublin in 1850, his parents being Scotch. His father was Government Printer in Dublin and afterwards became one of the founders of the Melbourne Age. The subject of this sketch came to Melbourne with his parents about 1859, and served his apprenticeship in the Herald office. Subsequently he was in the Melbourne Punch office, but left to join his brother, Mr. George Fisher, since Mayor of Wellington. For a time he worked at the Times' office, afterwards becoming a compositor at the Government Printing office, where he is still employed. A a leader and organiser of men, Mr. Fisher has a wonderful record. His life has been one of constant untiring effort for his fellow workers. His name is respected throughout the Australasian colonies as “a leader of the people.” He is said to have founded more trade organisations than any man in New Zealand, and to have been identified with more movements for the benefitting of the workers than anyone in the Southern Hemisphere, and to have originated, and by personal effort secured the passing into law by the New Zealand Legislature of, the most liberal labour measures ever made law in any country in the world. He became a Unionist in 1886 in Melbourne, and on his arrival in New Zealand he was immediately chosen to represent his office. In Auckland he first became conspicuous as an organiser. The Typographical Society had only eight members on his advent, and these worked for “what they could get.” When he left three years later it had over 100 members, and had secured many of the rights it now enjoys. His services were recognised in the shape of an illuminated address and purse of sovereigns. Returning to Wellington he organised the various trade bodies under one head, making all differences common cause, the Trades and Labour Council being the result, with Mr. Fisher as its first president. One of the first acts of the Trades' Council was to create and sustain an agitation for the setting up of a Royal Commission to inquire into alleged sweating page 553 throughout the Colony. The Commission, of which Mr. Fisher was a member, reported on 100 pages of printed foolscap, showing that sweating of almost every kind abounded in the Colony, and suggesting remedies which were accepted, and are now being applied by law. Among the results of the work of that Commission were the establishment of a labour bureau and bureau of statistics throughout the Colony, and the passing of a Conciliation and Arbitration Act, setting up Conciliation and Arbitration Boards for the determining of disputes between employers and employees in New Zealand. It is noteworthy that Mr. Fisher was elected to the first board set up in Wellington in 1896, being returned at the head of the poll. The idea of a Labour Day for the Colony is credited to Mr. Fisher, and while president of the Maritime Council he induced the Government to gazette the day a public holiday. The late Hon. John Ballance frequently consulted Mr. Fisher in reference to labour legislation, and after Mr. Ballance's death Mr. Fisher promoted the Ballance memorial movement. While a borough councillor at Petone, Mr. Fisher brought forward a resolution requiring all those contracting with the council to pay a living wage. The motion was rejected only on the casting vote of the mayor. Mr. Fisher has held many important offices, the most prominent being on the Sweating Commission, Maritime Council, Trades' Council, labour conference, Trades' Council conferences, Working Men's Club, Typographical Association, Wellington Typographical Society, Wharf Labourers' Union, Eight Hour Labour Day Demonstration, Woollen Mills Employees' Union, Tailoreases' Union, Auckland Typographical Society, Carriers' Union, Conciliation and Arbitration Board of Wellington.

Mr. Andrew Collins, J.P., ex-President of the Eight Hours Demonstration Committee of Wellington, has been a prominent labour leader for many years. He was born in Egham, Surrey, England, in 1850; at fifteen he was apprenticed as a baker in London and completed his time in 1870. Two years later he was engaged as cook on the ship “Halcione,” and made two trips to New Zealand with emigrants. On the second occasion the passengers to the number of 350 were quarantined at Soames Island for a period of six weeks, and upon Mr. Collins devolved the duty of cooking the food for this large number of persons. Finding the appliances then provided at the Island wholly inadequate for the purpose, he had recourse to an expedient known as a “crow's nest”—an arrangement of trenches dug in the ground and connecting with a central pit over which a rough chimney is constructed. By this means the flames and heat from fires built at the outer ends of the trenches are conducted along the trenches, on which the cooking vessels are placed, to the central chimnney. It was in this rude contrivance that Mr. Collins carried on his duties in the open air for the whole period with eminently satisfactory results, so much so that Dr. Johnson, the Government Health Officer who was in charge at that time, presented him with a testimonial complimenting him on his ingenuity. Determining for the future to make the Colony his home, Mr. Collins found employment with Mr. S. Scott, of Wellington, for six months, and afterwards with Mr. W. Freeman, with whom he has since continued, a period covering twenty-three years. Mr. Collins' connection with trades' unionism dates from the time of his apprenticeship in London, at which time, what is now known as the “old” trades' unionism, held full sway. This he describes as differing from the “new” unionism in that the union was then more of a social club and benefit society. To Mr. Collins is due the credit of having formed the existing Bakers' Union, one of the most complete of its kind in the colonies, embracing as it does every journeyman baker within the provincial district. Four times previously were the bakers formed into a union, only to fall away again, and it was not till the year 1888 that the present successful Union was established. On each occasion Mr. Collins took a foremost part in the work, nothing daunted by previous failures, and it was with unalloyed satisfaction that he finally saw his efforts, and those of Mr. McEwen, of the firm of Messrs. McEwen and Churchill, who assisted him on the last occasion, crowned with success. Since then Mr. Collins has been continually closely identified with its management, and now holds office as its president for the fifth year, during which time he has been very successful in settling in an amicable manner disputes which have arisen with employers. In 1888 Mr. Collins assisted in forming the Wellington Trades' Council, and has held a seat on it ever since as a delegate of the Bakers' Union. Since its inception the Council has been engaged in four large strikes—the maritime strike, the Petone Woollen Mill strike and two tramway strikes—in all of which Mr. Collins has rendered valuable aid to the labour cause. Outside of labour matters he has been assiduous in his attendance at meetings of the Council and has held at different times the offices of vice-president, treasurer and trustee, besides representing the Council at three interprovincial conferences. Mr. Collins is also a vice-president of the Anti-Chinese League, and has held office as president of the Eight Hours Demonstration Committee for a period of three years. As a director of the New Zealand Times Company in the interest of labour he has carefully guarded the welfare of the employees, and the good feeling existing between them and those entrusted with the management of the paper is largely the result of his influence. In 1874 Mr. Collins was married to Miss Catherine Lilias Hutchison, of Wellington, and they have a family of eight children. In 1893 he was appointed a Justice of the Peace by the Ballance Government.

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Wellington Ironworkers Assistants' Union. This Union was formed in 1890, with a membership of 40, which has since increased to 70. Anyone connected with the trade may become a member. The objects of the Union are the protection and advancement of members' interests. The subscription is Is. per month, the entrance fee being 2s. 6d. The Union was affiliated to the Trades and Labour Council, but retired in 1891. Members of the Union are not permitted to wort with non-Unionists. The officers are:—Messrs T. Hollis (President), W. A. Tidman, Hall Street (Secretary), and J. Durant (Treasurer). The Union has been in rather a disorganised state for some considerable time past, through want of interest amongst its members.

Wellington Operative Bakers' Union. This Union was founded in 1890. Its objects are to get shorter hours and better pay for its members, and their social elevation as a body in society. All who have served four years at the baking trade may become members, upon paying an entrance fee of from £1 to £5 (according to assessment). The subscription is 6d. weekly. The Union fixes the hours of labour its members may work, and the wages they must receive. No member is allowed to work with a non-member, or in a bake-house where the Union's rules are not observed. The Union, which has 55 members, is registered under the Act. Officers (1896) are:—Mr. Andrew Collins (President), Mr. G. T. Harris (vice-President), Mr. W. E. Gyde (Secretary), Mr. W. Freeman (Treasurer), Messrs. R. Shaw, H. J. Hicks, and T. H. Hogg (Trustees), Messrs. J. Allen, H. Adams, J. S. Blair, J. Bingham, C. H. Beynon, and J. H. Cope, (Committee). The Committee meets weekly, and the Union fortnightly.

Wellington Operative Boot-makers' Association. Officers (1896), Messrs. W. Shelton (President), R. Fountain (vice-president), P. T. Murphy (Treasurer), W. Miles (Secretary), C. O'Brien, W. Plowman, C. Bowen, F. Toomer, J. Burrell, F. Biddle, S. Stinson, and T. Barton (Committee). This Society was established on the 21st of December, 1885, Its objects, as disclosed by the rules, are to discuss and put into force any scheme of industrial co-operation, as deemed advisable by the Society; to use its influence for or against any Labour Bills brought before the Parliament of New Zealand; and to use all legitimate means for the moral and social advancement of its members. The Union, which now has one hundred and fifty members, was registered and incorporated as an Industrial Union under the “Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act of 1894,” under the style of the Operative Bootmakers' Society Industrial Union of Workmen, on the 24th of April, 1895, and has affiliated to the Trades' Union Council.

Mr. William Miles, Secretary to the Wellington Operative Bootmakers' Society, is referred to in this section as vicepresident of the Trades' Union Council.

Wellington Operative Carpenters' Union. This Union was resuscitated and re-organised in February, 1896, and has thirty members. The objects of the Union are the protection of its members and the advancement of their own and the interests of the trade. Any working carpenter may become a member on payment of the entrance fee of 2s. 6d., and the weekly subscription of 3d. The following are the officers:—Messrs. J. Williams (president), and F. Martin (secretary). The Union was reorganised by Mr. Harry Warner for the purpose of federating the building trades.

The Wellington Painters' Union. Officers, 1896:—Messrs. T. Brooker (president), R. Haggarty (vice-president), A. Castle (treasurer), T. Brooker (acting-secretary), F. Howe and J. Broderick (trustees), J. Perrin, C. Pearce, and H. Jones, (committee), J. Perrin and W. Hook (auditors). This Society was formed on the 20th of June, 1890, and was registered and incorporated under the “Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act of 1894,” on the 13th of May, 1895. The objects of the Society as stated by its rules are to establish good feeling between the employers and employed; to reform abuses existing in the trade; to establish a fund out of which expenses may be met and to assist members who meet with accidents. There are at present forty-two members connected with the Society, which is not affiliated with the Trades' Union Council. The Painters' Union has succeeded in steering clear of strikes.

Mr. Thomas Brooker, President of the Wellington Painters' Union, took a prominent part in its establishment, and was for some time president of two previous associations. Mr. Brooker was born in Deptford, England, Kent, in 1850, and served an apprenticeship to the painting trade in London. Completing his term in 1869, he served three years in the metropolis at his trade and come to Wellington in 1872, per ship “Jessie Readman.” Since arriving in New Zealand, Mr. Brooker has worked at his trade and has taken a deep interest in trades' unionism. He is a delegate in the interests of the Painters' Society to the Eight Hours Demonstration Committee. At the first establishment of the co-operative works system Mr. Brooker was honoured by being appointed to the charge of the painting works in Wellington and at Porirua. Before leaving England in 1872, Mr. Brooker was married to the second daughter of Mr. William Gillespie, of Sheerness dockyard, and has had twelve children—seven sons and five daughters—of whom ten survive.

Wellington Plumbers' Union. This Union was formed in May, 1895. It exists to protect its members and further the best interests of the trade. All competent journeymen plumbers and apprentices in their last six months may become members. There are seventeen members. The entrance fee is 5s., the subscription being 3d. per week. The Union, which is registered, meets fortnightly, on Tuesday evenings, in the Courtenay Place classroom. The office-bearers are:—Messrs. R. A. Berry (president), R. J. Ramsay (vice-president), T. W. Beaumont (secretary), Featherston Terrace, J. Dunes (treasurer), A. M. Williams, J. G. Williams, H. G. Bedell, F. A. Dryden, C. S. Jenkins (committee), C. W. Martin and R. Scott (auditors).

Wellington Shipwrights' Society. This Society, which claims to be the oldest trades' union in Wellington, was founded in December, 1873. It exists to uphold the eight hours system, to promote the payment of fair wages, and to provide for members in case of accident or misfortune. All those who have served seven years at the trade may become members, whether they are masters or employés. The entrance fee is £1, the subscription being 1s. monthly. Should a member meet with an accident, he receives 15s. weekly for the first month of his disablement, 10s. a week for the second month, and 7s. 6d. per week for the third month. At his death any balance there may be to a member's credit from his subscriptions, is handed to his widow or heirs. The Society's accumulated funds, which amount to a substantial sum, are invested in the Bank of New Zealand and Post Office Savings Bank. Twice a year the Society meets, but the committee holds meetings on page 555 the first Wednesday in each month. The members find that work fluctuates considerably in port, repairing being the principal work done. The officers (1896) are:— President, Mr. Geo. Manly; secretary, Mr. E. Hurlstone; treasurer, Mr. Gavin Colvin; trustees, Messrs. S. Woods, L. Arcus, W. Craig; auditors, Messrs. D. Campbell and W. Watt.

Mr. E. Hurlstone, Secretary off the Wellington Shipwrights' Society, was born in 1852 in Bristol. Leaving school at thirteen, he served his apprenticeship with the well-known firm G. K. Stoddart and Co., engineers and shipbuilders. On the expiry of his articles, Mr. Hurlstone made a voyage to New York in the ship “Thomas Baines.” Subsequently he entered a three years' engagement in the Royal Dockyard, Portsmouth. His health failing, he came to New Zealand in the ship “Avalanche,” in 1875, landing in Wellington. He has worked at his trade with various employers in Wellington. He was engaged to superintend the erection and fitting up of the Gear wharf and the hulk “Jubilee” at Petone. Since his arrival in the Colony the subject of this notice has taken a keen interest in trades' unionism. His connection with the Shipwrights' Society extends over twenty years, and during most of that time he has been in office. Mr. Hurlstone is an oddfellow of twenty-three years standing. He has served on the Clyde Quay school committee for the past four years, and is at present a member, and was one of the founders of the Federated Eight Hours Union in 1890.

Wellington Tailors' Union of Workers, registered under the Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act of 1894. Officers, Messrs. G. Swanston (president), J. Sheppard (vice-president), F. Jansen (treasurer), and T. Rogers (secretary), composing the executive, and Messrs. F. Knapp, C. Lamb, P. Wells, and W. Smith (committee). This Union was originally established about 1870 as the operative tailors' society, the name being changed at the time of registration to the above. For some years it was federated with other organisations in New Zealand, but at the present time the Union is confined to the City, while recognising any clearances, presented by any other society in any part of the world. It is affiliated to the Wellington Trades' Council

Mr. Frederick Rodgers, Secretary to the Wellington Tailors' Union, was born in Edinburgh in 1868. Mr, Rodgers was apprenticed to his trade in Manchester, and after gaining further experience in Scotland and London, came to Wellington, per s.s. “Ruapehu, ” in 1889. He has since worked at his trade in Victoria, New South Wales, Dunedin, Christchurch, and Wellington. Mr. Rodgers has long taken a prominent part in trades union matters.

The Wellington Tailoresses' Union was established in the year of the great maritime strike (1890). It is affiliated to the Trades Union Council, and has some seventy or eighty members. Mr. Allan Ward was for some time secretary of the Society, but was compelled to resign the office owing to the pressure of other duties.

Wellington Typographical Union. Officers:—Messrs. H. C. Jones, president; T. L. Mills, vice-president; and W. P. McGirr, jun., secretary. This Union, which was founded in 1862, is one of the oldest trade unions in the Colony, and also one of the strongest numerically, the numbers on the roll having reached two hundred during 1895. The objects of the Union are to watch over and foster the general interests of the printing profession in the Provincial District of Wellington; to promote the welfare of its members; and to work in conjunction as far as possible with Typographical and other societies in and outside the Colony. The business of the Union is carried on by a Board of Management, consisting of the officers of the Union (who are elected annually by ballot) and representatives of the Union, and of those printing establishments that conform to Union rules. It is now registered under the Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act, 1894, and though in the past it has borne with credit its share in the industrial strife that has arisen from time to time, its relations with the employers have been for some years past of a friendly and cordial nature.

Mr. W. P. McGirr, Jun., the Secretary of the Wellington Typographical Union, was born in Melbourne in 1859, and received his earlier education at the Model School in that city. In 1870 his parents settled at the Thames, New Zealand, where the subject of this notice attended the Karaka Creek School. He was apprenticed to the printing trade with his father, then proprietor of the Clutha Leader, in Otago. After four years, his father disposed of his interest, and Mr. McGirr came to Wellington, completing his term of six years in the Government Printing Office in 1879. He has since been continuously employed in that establishment, and has become a member of the permanent staff. In trade union work Mr. McGirr has long been prominent, first as a member of the Board of Management of the Wellington Typographical Union and subsequently as its president for three years. He became secretary of his Union in 1892 and has since occupied the position with credit to himself and advantage to the Society. He is a delegate to the Trades' Council and a member of the committee of the Eight Hours Demonstration, and has taken a leading part in all prominent labour
Mr. W. P. Mcgirr, Junr.

Mr. W. P. Mcgirr, Junr.

page 556 movements of recent years, being well-known and popular. As a cricketer Mr. McGrirr has taken part for eighteen years—as committee-man for the province for four years, and as captain and delegate of the Midland Cricket Club for two and ten years respectively. Mr. McGirr was captain of the teame that defeated Auckland by ten wickets in 1890, and that played against the first New South Wales team that visited Wellington. While a member of the Midland Club he won the bowling average for seven years consecutively, and has been successful in winning trophies, including a gold medal. In 1891 Mr. McGirr married Miss Annie Hodge, of Morrison's bush, Greytown, and has two sons. On the occasion of his marriage he was presented by his Union with an illuminated address and a handsome marble clock, in recognition of his services as president.

Wellington United Furniture Trades' Society. This Society, which has twenty-five members, exists to uphold the eight hours system, and to maintain the standard wages in the furniture trade, and generally to protect its members' interests. It was formed in 1891, and was reorganised three years later. All members of the trade who are not employers are eligible to join it. The entrance fee is one shilling, and the sub scription 3d. a week. Mr. W. O'Brien is president, and Mr. A. J. Bishop is secretary, meetings being held fortnightly.

Waikanae River.

Waikanae River.