is situated at the extreme head of the Pelorus Sound, on the main overland route between Blenheim and Nelson, and is twenty-eight miles north-west from Blenheim. In the early sixties there was but one house—a lodging place for travellers—but Messrs Dive, Gabie, Duncan, and Brownlee soon established sawmills in the district, and in the year 1864 the Wakamarina diggings broke out. The greatly increased traffic and rapidly growing population found a natural centre at the head of Pelorus Sound, for this was not only the junction of the roads that lead to Nelson, to the Wairau, and to the diggings at Wakamarina, but was also a convenient spot for shipping purposes, so that it was not long before a township sprang up with a number of business houses. Havelock, however, is not likely, from its situation and the nature of the surrounding country, ever to be an extensive town or important shipping port. While the diggings were in full swing, and the timber industry was busy at the same time, trade flourished at the port: yet though the mines gave way, and sawmilling fell off, the town experienced no violent depression, owing to the steady growth of the farming industry, which is now its chief support. The depasturage of sheep and cattle and dairy farming are extensively couducted in the neighbourhood, and there is a large cooperative cheese factory. Sawmilling is still vigorously carried on, but chiefly at some distance. Brownlee and Company's Blackball sawmill, one of the largest in the colony, is, however, situated within a mile or so of the town,
Protected. Lucknow Street, Havelock. Macey, photo.
and gives employment to about sixty or seventy men; near Canvastown there are a couple of mills of considerable size, and at the head of the Rai Valley there are several others: and milling is still carried on in the Kaituna Valley, though now only to a small extent. Havelock has great scenic attractions, and it is probable that at no distant date it will become a popular holiday resort; the town occupies a narrow strip along the shore line of the beautiful Pelorus Sound, and is a convenient centre for the Sounds tour, which takes in some of the most attractive country in the colony. The climate of Havelock is mild and equable, the great majority of its days being bright and sunny. Havelock is a well-built township. The different trades are well represented; there are several churches, a large public school, an Old Men's Home, used partly as a hospital; a post, telegraph, telephone, money order, and other Government offices, a public hall and Town Board chambors. There are also three good hotels and an accommodation house. Havelock has a bi-weekly paper, known as the “Pelorus Guardian,” and the public affairs of the township are controlled by a Town Board. There is a daily mail coach service from Blenheim, a tri-weekly service from Nelson, and a bi-weekly service from Picton, via The Grove. The mail is delivered daily by a letter carrier within the town area. A screw steamer plies fortnightly between Wellington and Havelock, and there is also frequent and regular mail communication by oil launch with the Sounds. Sea-fish are plentiful in the Sounds, and there is game in the neighbourhood. Havelock has a population of about 316 souls.
The Havelock Town Board
was first formed in the early eighties. It consists of five members, who are elected once in two years. The Board also performs the functions of a Harbour Board and a Cemetery Board. The town area is a long narrow strip extending along the shore of the port of Havelock, and is intersected by the Blenheim-Nelson coach road. The town is lighted with lamps, and obtains its supply of water from a reservoir situated on a hill at the rear, every house being connected. There is an efficient fire brigade, under the captaincy of Mr. A. C. Gregor. The rateable value of Havelock is slightly
Havelock. Macey, photo.
over £22,060, and the rates are levied on the capital value. The general rate of Id in the £ amounts to about £92; and there is a special water rate of 6s 6d per quarter on each residence. The property of the Town Board includes a town hall—which has accommodation for about 300 persons —a public library, and the Board office. Members of the Board for the year 1905: Messrs W. Price (chairman), W. H. Orsman, Charles Pickering, W. P. Simmonds, and W. H. Smith; Clerk of the Board, Mr. W. K. Matthews.
Mr. William Henry Orsman
, who has been a member of the Have-lock Town Board since the year 1902, was born in Nelson in 1862, and was educated and brought up to farming in his native place. In early manhood, he spent a year or two as a coachdriver, and afterwards kept a general store on the Waikakaho goldfields, Marlborough. In 1888, Mr. Orsman was employed as storeman in the store of Messrs Brownlee and Company, of Havelock, and in July, 1901, he established himself in business on his own account as a general storekeeper in Union Street. Mr. Orsman takes a keen interest in the public affairs of the town, and is a member of many public and social bodies.
Mr. Walter Kilvert Matthews
was appointed Town Clerk and Engineer of Havelock in April, 1904. He was born at Havelock on the 22nd of September, 1867, was educated at the local public school, and afterwards served his time to the building trade, at which he subsequently worked for some years at Blenheim and in Havelock. In February, 1899, Mr. Matthews was appointed secretary and inspector to the Pelorus Road Board, and he still holds those offices.
St. Peter's Anglican Church
in Havelock was founded more than forty years ago, and is situated in Lucknow Street. It has recently (1905) been rebuilt, in Gothic style, and stands on a concrete foundation. The church is built of stone procured from the neighbourhood, and is bricklined. It has accommodation for about 150 persons, and there is a membership of about 150. The district embraces a wide area, including Canvastown, where there is also a church. The Rev. A. W. C. Stace is in charge. Mr. Stace is further referred to at page 246 of this volume as having been formerly curate at Reefton.
Post Office Hotel
(Mrs T. Scott, proprietress) Lucknow Street, Havelock, Bankers, National Bank of New Zealand. This hotel is situated im-
Post Office Hotel.
mediately opposite the Post and Telegraph Office, in the main street of Havelock, and is the oldest established hostelry in the town. It contains tourteen rooms, which are all well furnished and comfortable.
Mr. Thomas Scott
, Sometime Proprietor of the Post Office Hotel, Havelock, was born in Portland Bay, Australia, in 1848, and came to New Zealand, where he remained eight years, and then went on to Havelock, where he afterwards resided. Mr. Scott was a brewer by trade, but on entering the hotel in 1891, he gave up brewing, and gave his undivided attention to the business of his house. He was a Freemason and a Forester, and he had for more than twenty years been secretary and treasurer to the Havelock Jockey Club. Mr. Scott was married, and had five sons and five daughters. He died early in the year 1905.
Simmonds, William Percy,
Butcher Lucknow Street, Havelock. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Mr. Simmonds is a son of the late Mr. William Simmonds, who arrived in Nelson early in 1842 in the second immigrant ship which came to New Zealand. He was born in Blenheim in 1854, and after being educated at the Blenheim Borough School, and at the Bishop's school, Nelson, he was apprenticed at the Soho Foundry, Nelson where he acquired a knowledge of engineering. He, however, went to sea, and roamed about the Colony for several years. Having a knowledge of butchering, he opened a business in Blenheim, in conjunction with his brother in 1879; but shortly afterwards accepted an appointment with a firm, with which he remained ten years. In 1894, he established the business which he now conducts in Havelock, and is steadily forcing
his way to success. He does a brisk trade, not only at Havelock, but twenty miles beyond it, and three men are kept in steady employment. Mr Simmonds is a Freemason and an Oddfellow, and has long been a member of the Havelock Town Board and school committee. He is also a member of the Havelock Jockey Club, and has for many years acted as judge at the club's races. Mr. Simmonds is married, and has one son and one daughter.
Brownlee and co.
, Wholesale and Retail Morchants and General Storekeepers, Havelock. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand, Blenheim. This business was established in 1872. The firm carries heavy stocks of general merchandise, including drapery, grocories, ironmongery, crockery and glassware. It does a good steady trade throughout the district for a radius of twenty miles, and all through the Pelorus Sounds. Its delivery carts are kept going, and the business gives employment to four or five men. The firm has the local agency for the Commercial Union Fire and Marine Insurance Company.
Mr. William Hadfield Smith
, who is Manager of Messrs Brownlee and Co's store at Havelock, was born at Hobart, Tasmania, in 1845, and came to New Zealand in 1862. For a time he followed mining on some of the principal goldfields in Otago, and was at the Dunstan and Shotover. After sojourning for a few years in the south, Mr. Smith removed to Marlborough, and held the contract for carrying the mail from Havelock to Picton for a considerable time. He then turned his attention to storekeeping, and in 1877 he entered the employment of Messrs Brownlee and Company, with whom he has remained ever since. For the past fourteen years he has been manager of the firm's store. Mr. Smith has been a member of the Havelock Town and Cemetery Board. He is mar ried, and has two sons and one daughter.
Mr. Fred J. Scott
was born in Nelson, in 1871, and was apprenticed to the brewery and cordial manufacturing business, but he subsequently followed various pursuits. He is a member of the Order of Foresters, and an active sportsman. Mr. Scott is married, and has two sons. For some time he owned the Commercial Hotel, Havelock, but is now (1905) engaged at the store of Messrs Brownlee and Co.
General Storekeeper, Lucknow Street, Havelock. This business was established by Mr. Price in the year 1879. A good stock of general merchandise is always on hand, and Mr. Price does business over an area of over forty miles. His carts run regularly to the country and mining townships, and he also does a good trade with the Sounds. Mr. Price was born in Liverpool, England, in 1843, and came to New Zealand with his parents in 1852, in the ship “Fifeshire.” The family settled at Nelson, where, after he left school, young Price was apprenticed to the blacksmithing trade, which he followed for several years. On removing to Havelock, nearly thirty years ago, Mr. Price established the business, which he still suceessfully carries on. Mr. Price is married, and has two sons and two daughters.
Coach Proprietor Lncknow Street. Havelock. Mr. Pickering was born in Melbourne in 1845. In 1859 he went to England, but during the following year he came out to New Zealand and landed at Auckland, where he made a brief stay.
Mr. W. Pickering's Coach.
First to make the journey from Blenheim to Nelson in 1885.
He then removed to Picton, where he was employed for several years in managing a general store. After leaving Picton he went in for seafaring and was part owner of a vessel trading between Wellington, Wanganui and the Sounds. In 1876, he sold out and joined the firm of live and Co, Havelock, general merchants, which became extinct in 1878, through the largest fire that ever occurred
in Havelock. Mr. Pickering established his present business in 1879, and since then he has been continually on the roads chiefly between Havelock and Blenheim. He was the first to drive a coach from Blenhem to Nelson. The journey was begun on the 19th of April, 1885, when the coach left Blenheim with ten passengers. Havelock, a distance of twenty-eight miles, was reached that day, and left again next morning at 8 o'clock. The Peiorus bridge was not then completed and therefore, the horses were taken out and swum across the river, while the coach was wheeled over by the passengers. The road, otherwise, was in good order, and the only stoppage was at Rocky Point, where the party was detained an hour, while some rocks were cleared away. There was then a great lack of wayside accommodation on the road. Nelson was reached at 3.30 p.m., and the norses swept through Trafalgar Street amid shouting and cheering. At 8 a.m. the following day the return journey was begun, and Blenheim was reached shortly before midday on the 22nd of April. From that date a regular coach service was established, and the credit of doing so was due to Mr. Pickering. At first it was only a weekly service, put it was not long ere a subsidy was granted for a mail, and the service became a bi-weekly one. Mr. Pickering still drives between Havelock and Blenheim, and he is still as good a “whip” as he was in the days of auld lang syne.
Brownlee and Co.
(William Brownlee), Sawmillers and Timber Merchants at Havelock. This firm established its business in the sawmilling industry in 1864. Originally the firm's mills were situated at Mahakipawa, whence, after five years' work, they were removed to Kaituna, where they remained for eighteen years. In 1885, Blackball became the scene of operations, and the present mill was erected on the shore of the Pelorus Sound, near Havelock. This mill was first established by the Pelorus Sawmill Company, which went into liquidation in the early eighties. Messrs Brownlee and Co. then bought the property, and, after its complete reorganisation, started the mill anew under the style of the Blackball mill. The buildings connected with the mill cover an area of about ten acres. The mill is driven by 240 indicated horse-power, and the machinery includes two circular sawmilling benches for breaking-down purposes; two smaller travelling benches for running off; a planing machine; a self-feeding splitting saw bench, a cross-cutting saw; one of Covel's automatic saw sharpeners, and a modern saw-gilletting machine; a turning lathe; a vertical boring machine; a sharpening machin and three up-to-date locomotives which are in daily use for conveying logs to the mill from the firm's forest, eighteen miles away. The tramway is built of steel rails, and cost many thousands of pounds. There are substantial railway bridges on the line, and twenty-four trucks are brought from the bush daily. Messrs Brownlee and Co. have timber rights over some 1600 acres of Crown land at the head of the Rai Valley. The mill output is 16,000 feet of sawn timber per day. Adjoining the mill there is a wharf, where vessels drawing from seven to ten feet can berth at low
Scene in Mr. Brownlee's Bush, Pelorus Valley.
water, and three vessels are kept continually employed in exporting timber to Canterbury. An eighteen-ton tug, fitted up with a forty horse-power Union oil engine, is also kept for the purpose of towing the scows in and out of the harbour. The timber
exported includes rimu, matai, white pine, and totara, and as it is all graded first quality, it finds a ready sale in the Canterbury market. About thirty-five men are constantly employed at the mill; a gang of about twenty men in the bush, and nearly twenty more are employed in the maintenance and management of the tramway. Mr. John Brownlee, son of the proprietor, is the very capable and efficient manager of the firm's mills.
Mr. William Brownlee
, the Proprietor of Messrs Brownlee and Co.'s sawmills, was born in the year 1828, in Lanarkshire, Scotland, and was brought up as an engineer and millwright. He was for about seven years in the sawmilling industry at New Orleans, America, and after returning to Scotland, in 1858, he resided in Glasgow, until 1863, when he left for New Zealand in the ship “Aboukir,” and landed in Dunedin in January, 1864. During the same year he went to Marlborough and began sawmilling, which he has ever since conducted on an extensive scale. Mr. Brownlee is a widower, and has two sons, two daughters, and six grandchildren.
Mr. John Brownlee
, Manager of the Blackball Sawmills, is the eldest surviving son of Mr. William Brownlee, the founder and present prcprietor of the firm, and was born at Carluke, in Scotland, on the 5th of June, 1859. He was brought to New Zealand by his parents at the age of four years, was educated primarily at the Havelock public school, and finally at the Nelson Boys' College, and subsequently returned to Scotland, where he spent three years in the offices of the City Sawmills in Glasgow, which were then owned by his uncle, the late Mr. James Brownlee. Mr. Brownlee subsequently went to Australia, where he was engaged in the same class of work in Melbourne and Sydney for three years. He afterwards spent about nine months in the sawmilling and shipping trade at Hokianga in the North Island of New Zealand, and then returned to Havelock, and took charge of the Blackball sawmill.
Reader, Harry Marsh,
Farmer, “Oakleigh,” Havelock. Mr. Reader was born in London, England, on the 1st of February, 1857, and is the third son of the late Mr. William Reader who is further referred to as an old colonist. He came to New Zealand with his parents at the age of two years, went through the usual course of primary schooling at Wakefield, and in 1874 removed to the Pelorus with his family, and assisted in general farm work until his father's death, about five years later. Mr. Reader then began farming on his own account
at Havelock Suburban, and has gradually acquired a grazing farm of about 2000 acres. The greater part of the property is broken hilly country, about 800 acres being still in its wild state; but there is also a considerable area of almost level land along the banks of the creek. The farm carries at present (1905) about 1500 sheep, and sixty or seventy head of cattle, including a herd of dairy cows. Mr. Reader is chairman of the Pelorus Road Board and of the committee recently established in connection with the agitation for a Havelock Harbour Board. He is
also a member of the Picton Hospital and Charitable Aid Board, of the Marlborough Land Board, and other bodies; and he has also been a member of the Wairau and Sounds Licensing Committee and the local school committee. Mr. Reader is a director of the Havelock Co-operative Cheese Factory Company, Limited, of which he is treasurer, and is a member and office bearer in the Church of England. He is married, and has four sons and three daughters.
, near Havelock, was first taken up in the early sixties, and was carried on by its first proprictor for about twenty years. It was bought by Mrs Charles Elliot in the early nineties, and has latterly been conducted by her sons. The property is situated on the southern side of the Pelorus Valley about three miles from Havelock, and consists of 330 acres of freehold land. About 100 acres are nearly level and suitable for agriculture, and the rest is good grazing land. A permanent flock of 300 sheep is depastured, and about twenty cows are milked for the Havelock factory.
Mrs Marian Elizabeth Elliott
, Proprietress of Waverley Farm, is one of the oldest settlers in the province.
The late Mr. C. Elliott, Founder of the “Nelson Examiner.”
She was born at Camberwell, near London, England, on the 9th of February, 1840, and is the eldest surviving daughter of the late Dr. S. L. Muller, the first Resident Magistrate of the Wairau. Mrs Elliott came to New Zealand with her parents in the ship “Pekin,” in January, 1850, and landed in Nelson. She was educated partly in England and partly in Nelson, and resided with her parents in Blenheim until her marriage, in the year 1862, with Mr. Charles Elliott, the eldest son of Mr. Charles Elliott, the founder of the “Nelson Examiner.” Mr. Elliott was then engaged in the management of large sheep stations for his father, and they resided for many years in different parts of the province. He now (1905) lives at Waverley Farm. He and his wife have four sons and four daughters.
Mr. James Elliott
, who, in conjunction with his brothers, manages the Waverly Farm, is the eldest son of Mr. Charles Elliott and his wife.
Mrs. M. E. Elliott, and was born at Spring Creek, on the 26th of May, 1866. He was educated at the Blenheim Borough School, and brought up to farm work. In 1891, he settled with his parents on Waverley Farm. Mr. Elliott is one of the directors of the Havelock Co-operative Cheese Factory.
Mr. W. Boers
, formerly Telegraphic Lineman at Havelock was born in Rotterdam, Holland in the year 1835. After leaving school, he went to sea as a cabin boy, and gradually worked himself up to a good position. During the first twelve years of his seafaring life he underwent many hardships and encountered many perils. In 1855, he was in a ship which carried French troops from Marseilles and Toulon, to the Crimea, and was afterwards in the ship “Captain Cook,” which conveyed troops to Bombay, in 1858. He visited Australia, but did not stay there long, as he left Melbourne for New Zealand in 1860. On arriving at Dunedin he at once found employment with the Customs Department, but shortly afterwards joined Dr. Hector's Expedition to the West Coast Sounds, and after being with the expedition for four years, he went to Wellington, where he joined the Telegraph Department with which he was connected for nearly forty years. He now (1905) lives in retirement at Havelock.
Mr. Gustavus Mathieson
was born in Scotland in 1864, and came to New Zealand with his parents in 1865, landing at Lyttelton. He was educated at Christchurch, and became a member of the Hoskins Dramatic Company, at the time when Mr. William Hoskins, the cultured actor and Shakespearian scholar, had a lease of the Theatre Royal. Mr. Mathieson remained on the stage for some years, but in 1888 he became interested in mining at Cullensville, where he was one of the owners of the famous Wairarapa claim. He disposed of his mining interests in 1892, and took over the Grand National Hotel at Cullensville. Three years later, Mr. Mathieson left the field and took over the Masonic Hotel at Havelock, where he successfully carried on business for some years. Mr. Mathieson is now out of business, and resides in Blenheim.
Mr. William Reader
, formerly of Pelorus Valley, was born in Somersetshire, England, and was brought up to farming. He came to New Zealand in the year 1859, farmed for some years at Wakefield, in Nelson, and then removed to Marlborough, and settled in the Pelorus Valley. He died in May, 1880, and left six sons and three daughters.
Mr. John Wilson
was born at Auchterarder, Perthshire, Scotland, in 1831, and was brought up to farming. In 1852, he sailed for Australia, where he sojourned for about two years, during which he married. He then came to New Zealand, and on arriving at Nelson, in 1854, settled down to brickmaking. He, however, did not stay there long, butsailed for the Pelorous Valley in 1857, in a Maori schooner, via Pelorus Sounds. He was the first settler in the district, and all the hardships which fall to the lot of the pioneer were experienced by Mr. Wilson, who had to build his roughly hewn whare in the dense bush. At that time, Havelock had not been even thought of. Mr. Wilson took up a small portion of land in the Pelorus Valley, and gradually added to it until it consisted of a property of several hundreds of acres. Two years after his arrival in the Valley, he opened an accommodation house, which was
the first house opened for public convenience in the whole of the Pelorus Valley, or from Blenheim to Nelson, a distance of sixty-four miles. Mr. Wilson being a prospector at heart, made a tour of the Wakamarina river with three friends, and on “washing up” the results of two days' work, they found that they had eighteen ounces, fifteen pennyweights of gold, for which they received £4 per ounce. The news of this was spread far and wide, and the Wakamarina “rush” set in from Nelson in April, 1864. For this valuable discovery the prospectors
received a bonus of £1500 from the Provincial Government of Marlborough, and they divided it equaily between them. Mr. Wilson left the accommodation house in 1885, and lived on the farm which he had previously purchased until 1894, when he disposed of his property and settled down to a retired life in Havelock. He was one of the first members of the Pelorous Road Board, and he has for a number of years been treasurer of the Masonic Lodge in Havelock.