is a farming district situated twenty-seven miles south from Napier, on the main south railway line, and is included in the Hawke's Bay electoral and licensing district. Mails are received and despatched several times daily, and there is a railway station and refreshment rooms, a post, telegraph, and telephone office, one hotel, and a store. Te Aute College is about four, miles from the railway station, but within a very short distance from the next station on the line—Pukehou. The roads running through the district are in good order, and are much used by cyclists and motorists. Te Aute valley is surrounded by low limestone hills, and overlooks what, until recent years, was a swamp. By systematic draining the swamp has disappeared, with the exception of a lake (Poukawa), on which good duck shooting can be obtained. In the place of what was once a swamp there may now be seen paddock after paddock of richly-grassed land, clumps of trees, herds of cattle, flocks of sheep—the whole presenting a picture of pastoral beauty hardly to be surpassed anywhere in New Zealand.
Te Aute College
is situated on the line of the Napier-Wellington railway, thirty-two miles from the former town, and is surrounded by picturesque hills, and rich agricultural land.
Te Aute College.
The college is a Church of England educational institution for the elevation of the Maori race. A few European boys may be admitted, but the College is essentially for the Maori people, and is the only institution of its kind in New Zealand. The college consists of a group of five commodious buildings—the college house, the school rooms, the play shed, the chapel— ideally situated on the top of a knoll —and the head-master's dwelling house. It is an endowed institution, and possesses 7,000 acres of the surrounding land; this land was given partly by the Government, at the time when Sir George Grey was Governor, and partly by the Maoris themselves. Under the patient and successful management of the late Venerable Archdeacon Williams, the founder of the College, the property gradually developed into a splended endowment, capable of maintaining and educating seventy-five Maori youths. The history of the College is a record of successful work and steady progress. From an elementary school, established in 1872, with fifteen scholars on the roll, it has attained the position, to use the words of the Inspector of Native Schools, of “one of the best secondary schools in New Zealand.” A moment's consideration will enable anyone to see that this means a great deal more than it would do in the case of an English school, where the pupils receive instruction through the medium of their mother tongue. At Te Aute the advance has been made through all the numberless difficulties, intricacies, and complications arising from the fact that the teaching is carried on entirely in the English language. Among the many visitors who have expressed the satisfaction and pleasure derived from a visit to this college, is Mr. Eugene Stock, one of the Church Missionary Society delegates to New Zealand, in 1892. He says:—” The buildings, living, and general arrangements are equal to those of any good English school, and the education given goes up to the matriculation examination of the New Zealand University. Some of the lads, on leaving, go in for medicine and higher work, become native clergymen and interpreters, while others go into public offices and other city callings, but the majority return to their own Maori villages, and live upon the land. In any case the Te Aute boys become the leaders of their tribes, and it is, perhaps, the most hopeful feature in the prospects of the Maori race that those who now most influence it have been well educated in a Christian school. I have seen nowhere at Home, or anywhere else, brighter looking specimens of young manhood than the youths in the matriculation class at Te Aute.” Mr. John Thornton, the present head-master of the college, in an article contributed to the “Young Man's Magazine,” says:—” There is a widely-prevailing impression that Maori youths come to Te Aute College and spend several years in acquiring a good education, only to go back to their villages, forget all they have learnt, lead useless and degraded lives, employing their quickened faculties in the cause of evil, rather than of good. In short, that the last state of these young men is worse than the first, and that therefore their education has proved a curse and not a blessing. Like a good many other popular impressions, this one, too, arises from ignorance. People who indulge in these sweeping condemnations are generally those who have not troubled to enquire into the truth of things. In the case of Te Aute, the popular impression, regarding the effect of education upon Maori youths is a wholly erroneous one. I do not mean to say that all the young men who have passed through Te Aute have turned out well. It is sadly true that many Te Aute boys have not turned out as we could have desired. They have wasted their education or abused it. For these we grieve, but on the other hand we have abundant cause to rejoice. A very large number of boys have become changed beings, thanks to their Te Aute training; they have dofied the old nature, and donned the new, and have gained that which has made them upright, honest, useful men. The Bishop of Waiapu tells us that in most instances where he has come across old Te Aute boys dwelling amongst their own people, he has found them rising superior to their environment, and exerting a beneficial influence over those around them. Considering the crushing odds against them, the marvel is that so many have been enabled to keep afloat. On the East Coast a large number of old Te Aute boys are now actively engaged in pastoral pursuits. Some are sheep iarmers, some shepherds, others have taken up blocks of land, and are busily employed in improving them. Some again take contracts for bushfelling, carrying goods, and the like. A coast trip from Gis-borne to East Cape, taken with eyes open, and an unprejudiced mind, would do much to dispel erroneous impressions regarding the use to which a Te Aute training has been put. But it is not only amongst their own people that we find old Te Aute boys. Many of them are doing remarkably well in other walks of life. A considerable number of the students have passed the matriculation examination. One is a graduate of the New Zealand University in Arts and Law, and represents the Eastern Maori electorate in the House of Representatives. Several are undergraduates; a goodly number are employed in law offices, and in the civil service; some are holding good positions in merchants' offices; several are ordained clergymen, while others are theological students. In Auckland, Gisborne, and Wanganui there are strong Te Aute contingents, all doing well. and so the work has borne fruit in sufficient abundance to gladden the hearts of those who love the Maori race. Te Aute has all along striven to keep in
view a higher aim than mere intellectual culture. It professes to be, and tries to be, a Christian school. Its principles are Christian principles, its morality Christian morality.” An organisation that attracted a good deal of attention during the elections of 1905, was the “Young Maori Party.” This has come to be the general term employed to characterize the personnel of the “Te Aute College Students' Association.” The seed of this association was sown as far back as 1892, when a number of young Maoris, past and (at that time) present students of Te Aute College, formed an association, having for its object, “the amelioration of the condition of the Maori race.” Not much came of it at the time. Some good work was done, and a little in the way of practical results followed. Later on the idea matured, and the outcome was the formation of the Te Aute College Students' Association in 1897. The object of this association, as set forth in its constitution, is two-fold:—” (1) To keep up communication between past and present students of Te Aute College. (2) To aid in the amelioration of the condition of the Maori race physically, intellectually, socially, and spiritually.” The first conference was held at Te Aute in the beginning of 1897. Since then annual meetings have been held at Gisborne, Tuparoa, Papawai, Wan-ganui, Te Aute, and other important Maori centres. These annual gatherings greatly further the work of the Association. They are attended, not only by Te Aute students, past and present, but also by representative Maoris, of more mature age, from different parts of New Zealand. For the most part these are chiefs, men of good standing in Maori society, men of influence, thoughtful men. They attend not merely as interested listeners, but take an animated part in the proceedings, and make sensible and appropriate speeches. They argue, they criticise, they suggest. The Young Maori Party claims for these gatherings that they are calculated to exert a highly beneficial influence on the Maoris generally, an influence, too, not merely local, for it is a fact that these conferences, and all that pertains to them, the subjects discussed, the decisions arrived at, the resolutions passed, are matters of common talk throughout the lenght and breadth of Maori society. The Association has taken hold of the mind of the people, and is now recognised as a factor of the highest importance in the life of the race. Ministers, and other Government officials, interested in the work of elevating the Maoris, have been present at these conferences. They have taken much interest in the proceedings, and have promised to support the work of the Association by every means in their power. This promise they have faithfully redeemed. They have given scholarships to Te Aute boys to enable them to continue their studies at the University. They have also appointed as Health Officers amongst the Maoris, Dr. Maui Pomare and Dr. Peter Buck, both old Te Aute boys and hearty sympathisers in the work of the Association. The late Venerable Archdeacon Williams, the life-long friend of the Maori, was President of the Association, and took the keenest interest in its welfare. His prolonged experience, and deep knowledge of all Maori questions were of the greatest possible value in all its deliberations. Te Aute College has for many years held its own in athletics. Football is its speciality, and the Te Aute team competes annually in the Hawke's Bay Cup competitions. Twice it has won the Cup, and on three occasions the team has gone on tour, including a trip to Australia, and put up a successful record. It is a popular team, and has gained a good name by playing the game strictly according to rules. A technical branch is about to be (1906) established in connection with the institution. Mr. John Thornton is head-master, and he is assisted by Messrs A. L. Cloyd, A. H. Cato, and H. Olson.
Mr. John Thornton,
Principal of Te Aute College, comes of a Yorkshire family, long settled in Surrey, and was born in North London in 1844. He received his early education in a private school, but, before proceeding to India, he spent two years at Highbury College, where he gained a first-class certificate from the Committee on Council on Education. In 1864 he went out to India, under the Church Missionary Society, to engage in the work of vernacular education in the Telugu country. After passing his language examinations, he took charge of a Vernacular Institution at Masulipatam, where Christian students were trained and sent out as teachers to the mission village schools. Later on, for some time the supervision of these schools was added to his other duties. His last year in India was spent at Ellore, where he succeeded in restoring to its normal condition the Church Missionary Society's High School for Mohammedans and high-caste Hindus, which had been decimated by the admission, on principle, of two non-caste Christian students. After eleven years spent in India, Mr. Thornton came to New Zealand in 1875, and was for two years Rector of the Oamaru Grammar School. In 1878 he was appointed to Te Aute, where he has since laboured for the race he loves so well. Mr. Thornton is honorary secretary of the Te Aute College Students' Association, and a lay member of the Napier Cathedral Chapter.
Mr. J. Thornton.
Mr. Anson Hutchison Cato,
Assistant Master at Te Aute College, was born in Christchurch, in the year 1881, and is a son of the Rov. T. A. Cato, of Opotiki, Bay of Plenty. Mr.
Cato was educated partly at Te Aute College, and in 1900 was appointed assistant master at Frasertown. He received his present appointment in 1902. Mr. Cato has always taken an active interest in athletics, and is the holder of the Te Aute College 100 yards championship. He is also a tower of strength to the College football team.
The Venerable Archdeacon S. Williams
was born at Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, England, on the 17th of January, 1822. He came to New Zealand with his father (afterwards the Venerable Archdeacon H. Williams) in August, 1823, in the ship “Brampton.” The Rev. H. Williams, with his family, settled in the Bay of Islands, as a minister of the Church Missionary Society. Here Samuel Williams passed his boyhood, being educated at a school for the children of missionaries, under the superintendence of his uncle, the Rev. W. Williams (afterwards first Bishop of Waiapu). Later on Samuel Williams joined Bishop Selwyn at St. John's College, Auckland, and there received his theological training, preparatory to taking holy orders. After being personally instructed by the Bishop and his chaplain, the Rev. W. C. Cotton, he was ordained deacon in 1846. By this time he had become the head of the native department at St. John's. Not long after his ordination, he was sent on a special mission to Otaki, where he made the acquaintance of the West Coast natives. Soon after his return to Auckland, the Bishop received a petition from the Otaki Maoris, praying that the Archdeacon might be sent to take up his residence amongst them. Accordingly, in 1847, he removed to Otaki, to take charge of the mission work on the West Coast from Wellington to Rangitikei. At Otaki he established schools for the Maoris, and, under his direction and close superintendence—every beam being placed in position under his supervision—the Maoris erected the commodious and picturesque native Church, which still stands, and serves as a monument to the interest which the early converts to Christianity manifested in the Church of their adoption. At this period the Archdeacon was instrumental in bringing about an amicable state of relations between the Government and the natives, and in thus enabling the former to purchase land on equitable terms. For his services in this connection he received the thanks of the Government of New Zealand. In 1852 Sir George Grey foresaw that ere long a considerable number of settlers would be taking up land in Hawke's Bay, and he feared this would take place before the Maoris were sufficiently enlightened to give them peaceable occupation. Accordingly he was anxious to find some one qualified to take up the position of mediator between the two races. He had known the Archdeacon previously, and he invited him to accept the position. As an inducement he offered, on behalf of the Government, to give a grant of 4,000 acres for educational purposes, at the same time making no secret of the fact that his own object was political rather than educational. Thus it happened, that in 1853 the Archdeacon made a preliminary visit to Hawke's Bay. This was the year in which he was ordained priest. In the following year, with the consent of Bishop Sel-
The Late Ven. Archdeacon Williams.
wyn, and the Mission authorities, he finally left Otaki, and settled at Te Aute. Unwilling as he was to relinquish the good work on the West Coast, where there existed a flourishing system of schools, and where his labours were deeply appreciated by the Maoris, he nevertheless saw it to be his duty to comply with what he regarded as a providential call. The story of his canoe journey up the Manawatu river, his settlement in Te Aute, and his work in the district is too long to be related here. He occupied a unique position, and he occupied it nobly. In troublous times, amidst conflicting race interests, with serious collisions impending, he stood for years between the two races, consulted by both, trusted by both. Hampered on the Maori side by misconceptions—not always groundless—as to Government motives and Government policy, and on the English side by ignorance of the Maori mind and character, and of the best methods of dealing with the lands of a high-souled though barbarous people, he yet, by his unflinching courage, his indomitable energy, and his Christian integrity, so informed the minds of the Maoris, and so counselled the local authorities, that he succeeded in not only preventing a struggle, but when at length an armed demonstration was made—not indeed by Hawke's Bay natives, but by fanatics from outside —it was Samuel Williams who saved Napier. The whole trouble lay in the irregular system of land purchase by the Government, a system which so perplexed and irritated the Maoris, that, on several occasions, had it not been for the Archdeacon's intimate acquaintance with their language, their mind, and their policy, this irritation would have resulted in open hostilities. Nor was it in the neighbourhood of Napier alone that his commanding influence was exerted with peaceful results. It was personally exercised in Gisborne, and on the East Coast, where his efforts as a mediator between the two races, together with his influence over the Maoris, again prevented bloodshed, and furthered the cause of law and order. From the East Coast his name and fame spread inland to Taupo and the Waikato, until at length “Te Wiremu” became known far and wide as the champion of justice and equitable dealing, the apostle of peace and good-will, the guide, philosopher, and friend both of the Maori and the Pakeha. At this time the Archdeacon was the only clergyman in Hawke's Bay, and it was his practice to minister as far as possible to the spiritual needs of both Maoris and Europeans. Later on, when provision had been made for the support of clergymen for the English settlers, the Archdeacon's labours were more especially directed to the Maoris. He felt that the natives had the first claim to his services, and that his own talents in regard to his knowledge of the people and their language seemed to point to the Maoris as his special charge. Moreover, the Maoris and their cause had been left to him as a legacy, so to speak, by his father. Meanwhile the English settlers were not unmindful of what the Maori missionary had done for them. As a mark of their appreciation of his services, they subscribed liberally to the various endowments which he founded for Church purposes. But the Archdeacon's services to the State were not allowed to interfere with his own special work, for the Church Missionary work was prosecuted far and wide, with the result that considerable numbers of the Maoris embraced the
Christian religion. Congregations were formed, regular services held, and in a few years a number of Maori lay-helpers were engaged in forwarding the good work. At the same time the Archdeacon devoted much interest to the important question of education. It was a question that lay very near his heart, and he accordingly set to work to develop and utilise the Te Aute endowment. From 1865 to 1888 he was Rural Dean, and in 1888 he was made Archdeacon of Hawke's Bay. In 1889 the Archdeacon paid a brief visit to England, returning to New Zealand in 1890. Up to the time of his death he regularly ministered to the various Maori congregations in the Hawke's Bay Mission District, and, even in spite of advanced years, frequently took Maori services. He was the life-long friend of the Maori race, and although the Archdeacon, in his later years, was not able to go to them, they daily flocked to him for help and counsel in all matters affecting their welfare. The Archdeacon rendered eminent services to the Church, the State, and his fellow men. His field of philanthrophy was the world, and, while the extension of the Christian Church—in the widest and truest sense of the term—engaged his chief interest, his great heart and free hand were ever open to the claims of education, and to the needs of all those who were in any way afflicted in mind, body, or estate. The Venerable Archdeacon died at his residence on March 14th, 1907, at the age of eighty-five years.
The Rev. Arthur F. Williams,
B.A., Te Aute, Missionary in charge of the Hawke's Bay Maori Mission, was born in the Bay of Islands, in the year 1860, and is a son of Ex-Judge Williams, of the Native Land Court of New Zealand. Mr. Williams received his elementary education at the Church of England Grammar School, Auckland, and, later, studied at St. John's College, Cambridge, England, and at Ridley Hall Theological College, Cambridge. He took his Bachelor of Arts degree at St. John's College in 1883, and was ordained by the Bishop of Lichfield in 1881. From 1884 to 1886 he occupied the position of Curate of St. Luke's, Wolverhamp-ton, after which he returned to the Colony. For a time he assisted the Venerable Archdeacon Samuel Williams, and was later appointed to succeed him. Mr. Williams is honorary secretary of the New Zealand Mission Trust Board, organising secretary of the Maori Mission Fund for the diocese of Waiapu; and sub-treasurer of the Maori Mission Board for the diocese of Waiapu. His labours take him all over Hawke's Bay, and as far north as Taupo, besides which he assists in the religious instruction at Te Aute College. He married a daughter of the late Mr. Leslie Thomson, of Canterbury, in 1893, and has three sons and one daughter.
Te Aute Saw-Mills
(Henry Carlson, proprietor), Te Aute. These mills were established in the year 1903, and now (1906) have 1,200 acres of bush to work upon. The principal timbers cut are totara, white pine, and matai, which, when dressed, find a ready market in Hastings, Napier, Wellington, and Christchurch. The mill and yards cover about three acres, and the machinery comprises one traction engine; four driving engines, including a log hauler and steam winch; a portable and stationary engine, each of sixteen horsepower; twin circular saws, five feet six inches in circumference; and a planing and moulding machine. The output averages 11,000 feet per day, and the mill finds employment for thirty-three persons, all of whom reside in the vicinity. About 100 head of fine oxen and fifteen horses are kept for haulage purposes. The main office is situated at the mill, with Mr. Charles Rosser in charge.
Mr. Henry Carlson,
proprietor of Te Aute Saw-mills, was born in Carlshamn, Sweden, in 1844, and for many years followed a seafaring life. He came to New Zealand in 1876, in the ship “Shakespeare.” landing in Wellington, and after being engaged in saw-milling in Palmerston North, he started in business as a bridge contractor. Mr. Carlson built the Manawatu bridge at Kaitoke, the Waipawa and Waipukurau traffic bridges, the Tamumu, and other substantial
Mr. H. Carison.
bridges in Hawke's Bay and Mana-watu. In 1890 he started the Timber Bay saw-mill, near Dannevirke, and afterwards owned and operated similar
industries at Pahiatua, and Manga-toro. Mr. Carlson is a trustee of the Dannevirke Hospital. He married Miss Careng Nielson in 1865, and has two sons, both of whom are engaged in saw-milling at Taihape.
Mr. Charles Rosser,
manager and clerk of the Te Aute Saw-mills, was born in Waimea, Nelson, in the year 1870, and received his present appointment in 1903. In 1896 he married a daughter of Mr. James Davey, of Dannevirke, and has one son and one daughter.
Farmer, Te Aute. Mr. Priest operates two properties; one of 300 acres, situated at Te Aute. on which he resides, and another of 640 acres in the Argyle settlement. The combined stock comprises 1,600 Leicester cross-breds, and upwards of 150 head of cattle. The home farm is used chiefly for dairying purposes, and carries a herd of seventy milking cows. It is provided with a separator, and up-to-date butter-making machinery, and the product is disposed of to Te Aute College and various sheep stations in the neighbourhood. Mr. Priest was born in the Shetland Islands, Scotland, in the year 1863. He came to New Zealand in 1878, in the ship “City of Auckland,” which ran ashore and broke up on the Otaki beach, near Foxton. Mr. Priest subsequently removed to Hawke's Bay, and found employment with Mr. Donald McDonald, at Puka-hu, with whom he remained for three years. Afterwards he was employed by Mr. George Beamish, on “Wahna,” Maraekakaho, and by the Venerable Archdeacon Williams, at Te Aute. In 1896 Mr. Priest started farming and dairying on his own account, and has been most successful in his undertakings. Owing to the pressure of business he has taken little part in public matters, but is a director of the Kai-kora North Saleyards Company. Mr. Priest married a daughter of Mr. Benjamin Ebbett, and has a family of two sons and one daughter.
the property of Mr. Maurice Mason, is a freehold estate of 4,000 acres of undulating country, and depastures two sheep to the acre, chiefly of the Romney-Marsh Lincoln breed, though some of the flock are pure-bred Romneys. Lambing averages about eighty per cent. There are also 400 head of short-horn and Hereford short-horn cross-bred cattle on the property. The Hawke's Bay Hunt Club's kennels are located at “Taheke,” and many good runs have been had over the station and surrounding country. There is a fine modern dwelling house, pleasantly situated, and several substantial outbuildings, including a wool shed stocked with six stands of Wolseley sheep-shearing machines.
Mr. Maurice Mason
was born in the Hutt, Wellington, in the year 1857, and received his education at the Wan-ganui College. He has resided at “Taheke” since 1876. Mr. Mason has been a director of the Hawke's Bay Farmers' Co-operative Company since its inception, and is a member of the Agricultural and Pastroal Society, the Hawke's Bay Hunt Club, and the Hastings and Hawke's Bay social clubs. He married a daughter of Mr. J. Skerman, of Palmerston North, in 1885, and has two sons and four daughters.
“Te Onepu,” Te Aute, the property of Mr. M. E. Groome, is a freehold estate of 1,030 acres, with a leasehold of 300 acres of native land. The bulk of it has been sown in grass, but a little cropping is done for home use. The winter stock comprises 3,000 breeding ewes, almost pure-bred English Leicesters, and the lambing averages ninety-five per cent. As many as 4,500 sheep have been carried in the summer months, and about 1,000 lambs are disposed of each season. Upwards of 100 head of cattle are grazed. There are six stands of Wolseley machines in the wool shed, and in the same building accommodation is provided for 1,000 sheep in the night pens. The “Te Onepu” clip is exported to the English markets. There is a modern dwelling house, surrounded by an orchard, and a tastefully-arranged garden on the property.
Mr. Michael Edward Groome,
J.P., was born in Shropshire, England, in the year 1843, and received his education at Whitchurch Grammar School, and later, with the idea of entering the navy, he studied at Portsmouth. In company with Mr. John Harland, a brother of Sir Edward Harland, of Belfast, Mr. Groome left England in
1860, for New Zealand, and subsequently landed at Auckland. Through the advice of Sir Thomas Gore Browne (the then Governor of New Zealand), to whom they had a latter of introduction, Messrs Harland and Groome decided to continue their journey to Hawke's Bay, and, with that end in view, they chartered a small vessel, and eventually landed in Napier. After spending a short time on Mr. J. N. Williams' Kereru station, Mr. Harland died, and Mr. Groome then went to look after Mrs. Harland's interests at Taradale, where he remained until 1865, when he left for England. He returned to the Colony a year later, and took up land in the same district, which he farmed, and, at the same time, succeeded Mr. G. H. Norris in the management of Mr. Thomas Tanner's “Riverslea” flock. After his return from another trip to England, Mr. Groome sold his Hastings property, and joined Messrs Murray, Roberts and Company in taking up Hawkestone and Pakaututu stations. In 1880 Mr. Groome, in conjunction with Mr. David Ballantyne, bought the “Te Onepu”property. Subsequently, however, the partnership was dissolved, and Mr. W. H. Bolton took the place vacated by Mr. Ballantyne. The latter partner afterwards inherited un estate in England, and sold out his interest in “Te Onepu” to the present proprietor in 1903. Mr. Groome has been a member of the Petane and Puketapu Road Boards, and the Te Aute School Committee. For a number of years he was secretary of the Hawke's Bay Hunt Club, but resigned the position on leaving for England; he was subsequently made a life member, and is deputy-master of the club. Mr. Groome is also a member of the Hawke's Bay Agricultural and Pastor-al Society, the Farmers' Union, the Hawke's Bay Jockey Club, the Gun Club, and the Hastings and Hawke's Bay social clubs. As a Freemason he is a member of Lodge Scinde, No. 5, N.Z.C. He also served in the Maori war as a volunteer under Captain Tanner. Mr. Groome married a daughter of the late Mr. Thomas Nun-nerley, of Belton, Whitchurch, Shropshire, England, and has five sons and two daughters.
Williams, William T.,
Sheep-farmer, Pukehou, Te Aute. Mr. Williams is the only surviving son of the late Venerable Archdeacon Williams, and was born at Te Aute in the year 1856. He received his education in Wellington and Auckland. Mr. Williams takes an interest in his late father's stations, and is a member of the Hawke's Bay Agricultural and Pastoral Society. He married a daughter of the Rev. Mr. Puokey, of Kaitaia.