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Grammar of the New Zealand Language

Chapter VII. — Of the Verbs.*

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Chapter VII.
Of the Verbs.*

§ 1. Classification.—They may be distributed in

(a) Primitive, i.e., underived from other words; e. g.,

  • Noho, to sit

  • Hopu, to catch.

(b) Derivative, i. e. such as are derived from words of some other root; e.g.,

  • E kakahu ana i tona, is putting on his garment.

  • I ahatia koe? what was done to you?

  • Penatia, do it in that manner.

  • E hau, if it blow.

  • Narungatia mai, push it in from above.

  • E pai ana, it is good.

* There are many things connected with this subject that will, no doubt, often appear strange to the European reader; and he will frequently have to be careful lest he be misled by theories derived from occidental grammars. In those languages the verb is a leading word in the sentence, and by it exclusively is the office of affirmation or predication performed.

In Maori, on the contrary, a pure genuine verb is by no means of frequent occurrence: almost any word denoting a thing, or quality. is capable of sustaining that office; and predication is as frequently implied as express ed. In considering, therefore, the Maori verbs, we shall have to examine, not only those words which have been invested with the properties belonging to that class; but also those forms in which no mark of predication is expressed. The term predication we have adopted, for want of better, to denote those functions which are peculiar to the verb, and which are sometimes described by grammarians under the terms “affirmation” and “assertion.”

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This class is by far the most numerous. Under it also may be comprised

(1) Verbs formed by reduplication; e, g.

  • Korerorero, to hold conversation with, &c.

(2) Compound verbs, i.e. verbs formed from two or more words joined together; e.g.

  • Ma-te-matapihitia mai, give it me by the window,

  • Whaka-ngoi-koretia, made weak.

Note.—As the same word is very frequently used in Maori as verb, substantive, adjective, and adverb, it is often impossible to determine under which of the above classes it should be ranked; neither, indeed, will it be necessary; as the origin of the verb in no way affects its grammatical relations.

§. 2. Number, Person, and Gender.—Maori verbs are not declined by inflection; i.e. by variation of the ground form; and therefore know nothing of number, person, and gender.

§. 3. Mood and Tense.—As neither the ground form, nor the auxiliary particles experience any variation from change of mood, we cannot recognize any grammatical form for denoting moods in Maori, and shall not therefore enter any farther into the subject at present.

Note 1.—The only variations we have been able to discover are

1st. Those for denoting the imperative mood.

2nd, The prefixing of the particle waka to the verb, and thus eausing a Hiphil, or causative, conjugation. The prefixing of a conjunction cannot, we think, warrant the creation of a distinct form for the subjunctive mood.

Note 2.—As the business of the grammarian lies principally with the grammatical form of words, i,e., with those means with which a language is supplied for expressing the different varieties of thought, it is clear that no form is to be admitted under any head, which does not denote a meaning specifically belonging to that head. Thus, in the case of the Maori moods, we never, (as we sometimes do in English and other languages,) meet with a variation in form from the root, either in the case of the verb itself, or its auxiliaries; and we therefore consider that, grammatically speaking, we have no form for these moods.

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It is true, that in a logical point of view, i.e., when the signification alone is considered, a great many varieties both of mood and tense might be established. But this can never be admitted as the basis on which a grammar should be constructed; neither can any maxim be more true than that “equivalence in sense does not imply similarity in grammatical nature.”

§. 4. Tense. —Maori abounds in a variety of forms for denoting modifications of time. They are designated by verbal particles, (vid. Note,) adverbs, prepositions, pronouns, and the articles he and te placed in connexion with the verb. The force of these, again, is, in a large majority of cases, determined by the context, and we believe ourselves to be correct in saying that there are, in this language, but few absolute forms for determining tense; for example:

  • E moe ana, he is sleeping.

  • I reira e moe ana, there was he sleeping, or there he slept.

  • I riri au, I was angry.

  • Mo te aha koe i riri mai ai ki a au? why are you angry with me?

  • Ka haere ahau, I will go.

  • Na ka whakatika a Hone, then John rose.

(See also preposition mo:)

Note.—The verbal particles are words which have no meaning in themselves, but which prefixed to a word, endue it with the qualities of a verb. They correspond to the auxiliary verbs of English, but do not admit of the same varieties of applications: neither can they lay claim to the rank of verb substantive. Thus in Maori we have no direct form for such phrases as the follow ing, I am, you will, &c.

§. 5. They are as follows: e, ana, ha, kua, i, kia, hei, me, kaua, aua, and kei.

Their uses will be best ascertained by examining the paradigm at the end of this section. A more full consideration of them and of the other modes of construction, which are therein contained, will be deferred the to Syntax.

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As the voice of the verb but little affects its conjugation, we have not thought it necessary to make any separate head for the different voices; but have represented all in the one table.

The student, however, is recommended to read our remarks on the passive voice before he proceeds to examine into the tenses.

§. 6. It may be naturally expected that, in an unpolished language like Maori, there should not be much that is artificial, or complicated, in the arrangement of tenses. Such we believe to be the case. It is true that some would contend for as many tenses as may be found in English; but, independently of the improbability of such a thing, we believe that a careful investigation will lead the inquirer to the arrangement which we have adopted; viz. the present, the past, and the future.

It is true that other tenses may sometimes be met with which are accurately defined; but we cannot admit them a distinct place in the modifications of the simple verb; because such forms are always cornpound, or depend, at least, for their meaning upon the construction, and belong more properly to the syntax than to this part of the grammar.

§ 7. In examining into the time of a verb, it will often be very necessary for the student to notice whether the sentence, in which it is contained, is simple, or compound; a simple sentence* is that which consists of only one time; e g.

* We have adopted the term “sentence” in preference to “proposition,” lest the student should be led into perplexity by conceiving that we used the terms simple and compound in the same senses as those in which they are used by logicians.

From our examples be will see that we should call a sentence simple, even though the subject and predicate be complex terms.

By noticing whether, when the sentence is translated, one or two verbs are introduced, and whether either of them is dependent in time on the other, the student will easily make the distinction that we are desirous of establishing. The importance of this distinction will be seen in our examples of a compound sentence. For, in the first e-ana, which is present in a simple sentence, is now past; in the second, kua is future, though it strictly belongs to the past tense; in the fourth example this same particle stands for the pluperfect potential.

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  • E pai ana, it is good.

  • Kahore ahau i kite, I did not see (it).

  • Ko tatou katoa, ano he hipi, kua marara ke, we all as sheep have gone astray.

  • Kua mate to tatou Kai whakaora i runga i te te ripeka, our Saviour died upon the cross.

A compound sentence is that in which two times are introduced; e.g.

  • Me i reira ahau e pai ana, if I had been there it would have been well.

  • Akuanei, tae rawa atu, kua mate, it will come to pass, that, when I have got there, he will be dead.

  • Kua mate ahau, e ora ana nga rakau nei, I shall die before these sticks decay.

  • Me i whakararatatia i mua, kua rarata, tenei, if it had been tamed before, it would have been tame now.

Of this, however, more hereafter.

We may here also mention that it will often be very necessary to notice the circumstances connected with the uttering of a sentence, i.e. whether it be emphatic; whether it be the answer to a question; whether a large measure of certainty is designed to be implied, &c., &c. On these particulars we shall remark in the Syntax.

As it is quite immaterial with which part of the verb we commence, we begin with the imperative; simply because our remarks on it will be rather extended, and 2ndly, because we wish that our illustrations of that mood should appear in au unbroken line with our examples of the other parts of the Maori verbs.

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§ 8. The imperative mood of Maori abounds in more minute distinctions than any other part of the verb. We present them all here; chiefly because the sentences in which they occur are, for the most part, simple.

1. The most common form for expressing the imperative of an active verb is by its passive; e.g.,

Active Form. Imperative.
Patu, to strike, Patua, strike (it).
Tue, to fell, Tuaina, fell (it).

For the passive voice, see table under that head.

2. (a) If the verb be neuter, and in the second person, the simple ground form is used; e.g.,

  • Haere, go.

  • Hororo, make haste.

  • Tena, be prompt, be quick.

  • Kati, be quiet.

  • Whetero, put out your tongue*

(b) Occasionally, however, we find the passive form used, when the meaning of the verb is neuter; e.g.

  • Hapainga, let us start.

  • Takiritia, idem.

  • Kokiritia, dash forward (in pursuit, &c.)

  • Hoea tatou, let us paddle.

Sometimes both active and neuter verbs will take the verbal prefixes e, kia, hei, me, kaua, aua, kei, before them to denote the imperative.

* We may here mention that, in speaking of actions done by members of the body, maori never supposes the individual, but rather the member, to perform the act. Thus, such expressions at “lift up your head,” “open your mouth,” “stretch out your leg,” would not be rendered, as we have heard some speakers express it, by “huaia ake to matenga” “hamaniatis to waha, &c.,” but rather “kia ara ake to matenga,” “hamama tou waha,” “wharoro tou waewae.”

We have, indeed, occasionally heard a native say, wheterongia, (whattsongia, Ngapuhi) tou atero, titahangia; but these phrases are very rare.

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(c) E is used sometimes to denote the imperative of active and neuter verbs. It is chiefly used with the second person singular, dual, and plural.

It is never found in the first person singular; but is occasionally used in the first person dual and plural. We know of no instance in which it is employed in the third person, and we believe the following sentence to be incorrect: E aroha mai te Atua ki a tatou, may God love us.

N.B.—Illustrations of these remarks will be given in the table.

(d) Kia is capable of being used in all the persons of the imperative. It is the particle most frequently used with the first person. In the second, it is chiefly used with verbalized adjectives; though occasionally it is prefixed to the verb. In the third, it is used before either adjective or verb, and by its help we may, perhaps, make the best approximation to a form of the imperative in which Maori has been heretofore deficient; viz.—the benedictory; as in such sentences as the following: God be merciful to you.

N.B.—Another way for rendering the above sentence (and one equally deserving of attention) is by the preposition ma; as in the following; ma te atua koe e atawhai.

We ourselves much incline to a form which, at first sight, may not appear very appropriate; viz., kei te atua te atawhai, or tera kei te atua, &c. Though these forms are apparently indicative, yet they are frequently used in the imperative sense; Kei a koe te whakaaro mo tena the consideration for that is with you, i.e., you are to attend to that; kei a koe te tahi kupu ki a tatou, a word to us is with you. i.e., give us a word. Tena ano tetahi taro i a koe ma taku tamaiti, give me some bread for my child. E kite koe i a Hone tena te tahi paraikete, if you see John, give me a blanket, i.e., tell John to &c.

The dehortative and cautionary particles kaua, aua, kei, belong strictly to the imperative.

(e) Under this head we should perhaps also mention the particle me. As it is occasionally heard instead of the real imperative, we shall give it a place here.

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It will be observed that it does not take the passive after it; e.g.,

  • Me patu te te poaka,

  • Me hanga te taiepa.

(f) The only particles the imperative of passive verbs will admit before it are, kia, kaua, aua, and kei. Following is a table of sentences illustrative of the above remarks. We have preferred placing them all in one list that the student may more easily catch the various distinctions. Other forms are given by which the imperative is sometimes denoted.

1st Form. Whakaakona ahau, teach me.

2nd. Whakatika, arise.

  • Noho atu, remain away.

  • Hoko mai, come back.

  • Noho puku, sit quiet.

  • Tupeke, jump.

  • Pepeke, draw up your legs.

3rd. E ara, arise.

  • E noho, sit down.

  • Haere koe, e hoki, go, return.

  • E kai, eat.

  • E ngaki taua, let us two dig (it).

4th. Tena koe, kia wakamatu ahau, give it here let me try it.

  • Kia kaha, be strong.

  • Kia hohoro, make haste.

  • Kia ara (te pou let (the post) be upright.

  • Ko tena, kia nekehia atu, as for that, let it be moved away (by them).

  • Kia maia tatou, let us be courageous, &c.

5th. E! kaua ahau e haere ki reira. Pish! let me not go there.

  • Aua e tukua, do not let it go.

  • Kei ngaro, take care lest it be lost.

  • Kei whakarongo atu tatou, let us not listen, &c.

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6th. Ka oti tena, me ngaki a konei e koe, when that is finished this place must be dug by you.

7th. Maku etahi, (give) me some.

8th. Hei konei koutou noho ai, do you stop here.

9th. Kati te tahae i aku merene, cease stealing my melons, i.e., do not, &c.

10th. E tae koe, ka tono mai i a Hone, when you arrive there, send John here.

11th. Tatou ki te to, we to drag, i.e., let us go to drag (the canoe.)

12th. Ko te tangata kua tukua mai, (before you send the pigs) let the messenger be sent here.

The attention of the reader is also requested to the following paradigam the tenses as classified according to our arrangement.

He will observe that, as number and person make no difference in the form, one example of a kind will be sufficient.

Most of the sentences here inserted are simple. We shall reserve the consideration of the compound sentences for the Syntax.

Present Singular.


E patu ana ahau, I am striking or strike.


E patu ana koe, you are siriking, &c.


E patu ana ia, he is striking, &c.

Dual and Plural.


E patu ana maua, or matou.


E patu ana korua, or koutou.


E patu ana raua, or ratou.

Other Forms for the Present.


E kore ahau e pai, I am not willing.


Ko au tenei, here I am, (lit. this is I).


He tangata kino koe, you (are) a bad man.


Ko toku matua ko Kukutai, Kukutai (is) my father.

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Ka pai, it is good.


E haere mai, she is coming.


E pai ranei koe? are you willing?


E ki nei (or na) koe, you affirm.


Kei te patu, he is killing (it), (lit. at the killing).


Noku tenei wahi, this place is mine (lit. mine this place.)

Past Tense.


reira ahau i te ata nei, I (have been) there this morning.


Ko Rawiri te matua a Horomona, David (was) the father of Solomon.


He tangata mohio a Horomona, Soloman (was) a wise man.


I haere ano ahau, I went.


Nau i wakaatu, you disclosed.


Ka haere a Ihu, Jesus went.


E ngari a Hone ka kite, John rather saw it (not I.)


Haere ana a Ihu, Jesus went.


He ua tena, that was rain, it rained(used chiefly in animated description.)


He tini aku korerotanga ki a ia, many (have been) my conversations with him.


Ko te tangata kua tukua mai, the messenger had been sent (before the other thing was done.)


Kihai i pai mai, he was not pleased.


Ka te tuku tena wahi, (Ngapuhi) that place has been given to, &c.


Kua patua te poaka? has the pig been killed?


Kua oti noa ake taku mahi, my work has been finished this some time.


He mea hanga naku te purutangi, the handle was made by myself; [lit. the handle (was) a thing made of mine, (actively).]



Ka haere ahau, I will go.

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E riri mai koe? will you be angry?


Maku e patu, I will kill (it) [lit. the killing (it is to be) for me.]


Ko koe the haere? are you (the person) that is to go?


Tera e mate, he will die (perhaps), (lit. that will die.)


E kore e tukua, it will not be let go.


E tae koe ki Waitemata, When you go to Waitemata.


Akuanei ko ia kua tae, the chances are that he will get there first; (lit. presently it is he that has arrived.)


Kowai hei tiki? who is to fetch it?

Infinitive Mood.

  • Haere ki te whiu, go to drive (it), (lit. go to the driving.)

  • Pai kia haere, willing to go.

  • E kore e ahei te tohe, I cannot press you; (lit. the pressing cannot be effected.)

§. 6. Voice.—Maori verbs, in respect of voice, may be considered under the three well known heads of active, passive and neuter.

§. 7. The active is the simple root modified by one or more of the words already mentioned, e.g. e patu ana ahau, I am striking.

§. 8. The passive is the root varied in its termination; e.g. e patua ana ahau, I am struck.

Note.—The student will find, as we proceed, that the Maori passive differs in some respects from that of the English, Latin and Greek.

§. 9. The neuter expresses being, or a state or condition of being; when the agent and the object acted upon coincide, and the event is properly neither page 45 action nor passion, but rather something between both: as I am, I sleep, I walk.”*

Note.—Verbs derived from the simple adjective will generally rank under the head of neuter. Under this class also do we reduce a species of verbs in the arrangement of which we have felt some difficulty; viz.—such words as, pakaru, broken; marere, conceded, &c., i.e., words which are neuter in orm, but passive in meaning; which correspond in meaning to the past participle passive of the European languages, but are not traceable to any root. After much consideration we are inclined to think that they may most satisfactorily be regarded as adjectives, and classified accordingly: thus, in the following sentence, “kua pakaru te waka i te ngaru,” the canoe has been broken by the waves, we should regard pakaru as an adjective, or rather a verbalized adjective, just as much as we should kino in the following, “kua kino te waka i te paru,” the canoe is bad, or uncomfortable, through the filth.

To any who wishes to regard such a class as passive participles, we would reply, that the preposition i, (not e,) following them clearly determines them as belonging to the neuter family; and that though their meaning may not coincide with our definition of a neuter verb, yet we feel no difficulty on that head; for we only act in common with other grammarians, who have laid it down as a useful rule “a potiori nomen fit.”

As it may be useful to the student to be acquainted with this class of words we will supply a table of some of the principal, after we have made some farther observations on the voices.

In the passive we meet with variation in the term nation of the ground-form.

§ 10.

* Lowth.

N.B.—When we have occasion to speak of this class of words by themselves, as distinct from neuter verbs, we shall denominate them participal adjectives.

Active Voice.Passive Voice
A, to drive away, &c.Aia.
Ka, (v.n.) to light (as a fire)Kangia.
Maka, to throw away,Makā.
Wakama, to make clean.Wakamakia.
Hura, to expose (by taking off the cover)Hurahia, or Hurangia.page 46
Whakateka, to denounce as false,Wakatekaina.
Aroha, to love,Arohaina or Arohatia,
Tua, to fell (as a tree,)Tuaina, or Tuakina.
Raranga, to knit (a native basket, &c.)Rangahia.
Mea, to do,Meatia.
Mea, to do,Meinga.
Mea, to do,Meingatia (Ngapuhi).
He, (part, adj.) unacquainted with, &c.Hengia.
Kukume, to pull,Kumea.
Rere, (v.n.) sail as a boat, and to flow as water,Reia.
Rere, (v.n.) sail as a boat, and to flow as water,Rerengia.
Whakatete, to milk,Wakatetekia.
Paihere, to bind in bundles,Paiheretia,
Ope, to gather &c. (in handfuls,Opehia.
Whakapae, besige, or to accuse falsely,Whakapaea.
Whakaae, assent to,Whakaaengia, or Whakaaetia.
Hi, to fish with a hook,Hia.
Ririringi, (v.a.) to spill,Ringitia.
Ririringi, (v.a.) to spill,Ringihia.
Whaki, to confess,Whakina.
Arahi, to guide,Arahina.
Whawhaki, to gather (as grapes, &c.)Whakiia.
Kikini, to pinch,Kinitia.
Whangai, to feed,Whangaia.
Whangai, to feed,Whangainga.
Pupuhi, to fire (a gun), or to blow with the mouth,Puhia.
Pai, (adj.) good,Paingia.
Ho-mai, to give,Ho-mai.
Ho-atu, to give,Ho-atu.page 47
Waiho, leave,Waiho.
Ko, to dig,Keia.
Ko, to dig,Kongia.
Mono, to calk.Monoa.
Aro, to regard with favour,Aroagia.
Horo, (part, adj.) tumble down, as a land-slip,Horongia.
Horo, to swallow,Horomia.
Whakato, to sow, or plant,Wakatokia.
Whakato, to sow, or plant,Wakatongia.
Takoto, (v.n.) to lie,Takotoria.
Manako, (same as aro)Manakohia.
Toko, to propel by poles,Tokona.
Rongo, to hear,Rangona.
Whawhao, to stow,Whaowhina.
Whawhao, to stow,Whaoa.
Utuutu, to draw water,Utuhia.
Utu, to pay,Utua.
Ruku, (v.n.) to dive,Rukuhia.
Tu, (v.n.) to stand,Turia.
Whakau, to kindle,Whakaungia.
Hohou, to bind fencing, &c.Houhia.
Whawhau, (Waikato) idemWhauwhia.
Maumau, (part, a.) wasted,Maumauria.
Tatau, to fight against,Tauria.
Hahau, to seek,Hahauria.
Whakahou, to make new,Whakahoutia.
Mate-nui, much coveted,Mate-nuitia.
Tangata-whenua, a denizenTangata-whenuatia, to be naturalized.

(a) It will be seen that the above arrangement is made according to the final letter of the ground form, and that, each division contains some examples of reduplicated words, and of words ending in dipthongs.

(b) That, in words ending in a, the passive is mostly made by adding to the last syllable ia, ngia, kia, hia, ina, atia, kina.

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(c) That some verbs receive no additions to the last syllable; as maka, and that the active and passive are, in those cases, alike. On the Eastern coast ia takes the place of simple a in the passive; e.g. maka, makaia.

The speaker should be always careful, in pronouncing passive a to throw the emphasis strongly on the last syllable. The following words are of this description: panga, to throw away; pana, to shove away, &c.; kanga, to curse; wakamana, to ratify, &c.; taunaha, to bespeak; taka, to fall from a height; unga, to send; waha, to carry on the back.

(d) That some verbs have sometimes two or more terminations for the passive; as arohatia, arohaina, arohangia. We may here remark that some words have different passives in different districts; e.g.

  • Whangainga (Ngapuhi), Whangaia (Waikato.)

(e) That in words, one or more of the syllables of which are repeated, the reduplication will very frequently be dropped in the passive; e.g.

  • Kikini, kinitia; tapatapahi tapahia, &c.

Note.—It must however be noticed that there are many exceptions to this rule, and that the omitting or retaining the reduplication is often left to the option of the speaker. In those instances, however, in which he wishes to denote with peculiar emphasis the distribution, repetition, &c., implied by the reduplication, he always, as far as he can, retains it; e.g.

  • Titititia, strike every one of the nails.

  • Patupatua, strike with many blows, &c.

(f) In a few instances we meet with a passive formed by a change of the first syllable; e.g.

  • Rongo, to hear; rangona (passive); wakarongo, wakarangona (passive).

Examples of this rule are very few.

(g) Of the passives of compound verbs, two examples are given at the end of the table. The rule for their formation is the same as that for the passives of simple verbs: the final letters, in both cases, being the page 49 only thing on which they depend. Occasionally, however, we meet with a word resolved into two parts, and each part put into the passive voice; e.g.,

  • Kaihau, (v. act.) to sell the property of an individual without giving him any part of the payment, Kainga-hautia, (passive).

There is another form similar to the preceding, which requires to be mentioned here; viz., when two verbs follow each other in immediate succession, one of which acts as a kind of adverb, or qualifying word, to the other, they will both sympathize with each other in voice; will either be both active or both passive; e.g.,

  • Toia haeretia, dragged along; lit. dragged gone.

  • Tukua whakareretia, let down with a dash.

  • Kai moe, eat sleeping, i.e., while he is eating he is sleeping.

In such phrases the latter of the two verbs will generally take tia for its passive form.

(h) Occasionally a passive word may be met with which has no active; as parangia e te moe, oppressed by sleep; rokohina and rokohanga, waiho, homai and hoatu.

(i) Passive verbs are used in a more extended sense in Maori, than what is commonly met with in other languages, not excepting, perhaps, even the three passives of Hebrew.

The following are a few illustrations of the various uses:—

  • Haere, to go, v.n., te huarahi i haerea e ia, the road by which he travelled.

  • Neke, move away (yourself) v.n., nekehia atu, imp. move (the thing) away, kua nekehia, was moved away.

  • Titore, diffissus, part. adj., Titorehia, imp., Diffinde, adj.

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  • Oioi contremo, or nuto, v.n. oioia, imp., agita, v.a,

  • Riri, angry, riria, angered,; (e. g., ka riria ahau e ia.)

  • Pai, good, kia pai, let it (the thing) be good.

  • Wakapaia, imp., put it (the place &c) to rights.

  • Wakapaingia, to be accepted or approved of.

  • Korero, to speak, korerotia, made the subject of conversation.

  • Whakaaro, v.n., to think; whakaarohia, imp., think (of the thing); whakaarohia iho, think of yourself, &c.)

  • Kau, swim, v.n., ka kauria (te awa,) is swum over (the stream); ka wakakauria (te hoiho), (the horse) is made to swim over.

  • Kakahu, a garment, kakahuria (tou,) put on your (garment,) wakakahuria, (te tamaiti) put on the child's clothes.

  • Whangai, to feed, whangaia ma te ngohi, given as food for the fishes.

  • Tae, to arrive at (a place), ka taea Waitoke, Waitoke has been arrived at.

  • Taea noatia tenei ra, until it is arrived (at i.e. up to) this day.

  • Huri, to turn a (grindstone &c.), kia hurihia taku toki, that my axe may be turned, i. e. ground.

  • Whawhao, to stow or put into a basket &c.

  • Kua whaowhina te kete ki te tupeka, the basket was stowed (with) tobacco, i. e. had tobacco put into it.

  • Manene, to beg, kei manenetia koe ki te tupeka, lest you should be begged for tobacco, i.e. lest tobacco should be begged from you.

  • Horihori, to tell f[gap — reason: unclear]ehoods; ko te mea i horihoria e koe he tangata, the thing you erroneously said was a man, ko te mea i whakahorihoria e koe, the thing you denounced as false.

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For further remarks on this part of the Maori verb, vid. S.

(k) Note.—The student will sometimes find that the simple root is used with a similar variation of meaning; e.g.

  • Waha, to carry on the back; e waha, get on my back.

  • He paipa hei puru mo taku tupeka, a pipe to plug my tobacco: into which to plug my tobacco.

  • Te waka e to na, the canoe that is dragged up there.

  • Te rakau e pou na, the stake that is fixed there.

  • Kei tehea whare nga tangata? Kei te whare e ngiha mai na, In which house are the people? In the house that burns; i.e. in the house in which the lights burn.

  • Kei te tao te kai, food is being cooked (in the oven.)

Sentences, however, like the last of these are mostly employed when emphasis and brevity are desired more than accuracy.

§. 12. The verbal nouns also (for which vid. chap. 3 §. c.) experience considerable variations in meaning. They are in most cases formed from the passive voice of the root; and as the rules for their formation may be easily learned by comparing a few with their respective ground forms, it may perhaps be sufficient to give the nouns derived from the verbs of the last mentioned table:
Passive Nouns.Verbal Nouns.
Hengia,Heanga, or Henga.
Paiheretia,Paiheretanga.page 52

Sometimes where it is desirable to make a distinction, on account of the greatness of the difference between the two branches of the same root, a different form will be adopted for each meaning; e.g.

  • Wanaunga, is a relation: wanautanga, a birth: Kiteanga is the opportunity in which a thing may be seen; kitenga generally denotes the act of seeing. Again, wahanga is a carrying on the back, wahinga a breaking.

§. 13. Neuter verbs.—On these but few remarks are required. For the distinction between the preposition i, by which they are followed, and the particle i, which follows active verbs, vid. i (prepositions, §. 10, note.)

That they sometimes take the passive form may be seen in the illustrations of the passive voice. In some cases also their passives change their nature, and become similar in meaning to the passives of active verbs; e.g.

  • Nohoia tou kainga, dwell, or occupy, your farm.

  • Ka hengia mai ahau e ia, I shall be (literally) ignored by him.

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§. 14. As the participial adjectives may be most conveniently classed under this head, we shall insert here a table of the principal of them:—

  • Ea, paid for.

  • He, unacquainted with.

  • Hoha, wearied at.

  • Horo, stormed (as a fort, &c.)

  • Mahora, given (as a feast.)

  • Makini, gapped.

  • Mana, ratified, &c.

  • Mao, ceased (as rain.)

  • Maoa, cooked (as food.)

  • Marere, fallen to the ground, &c.

  • Maringi, spilt.

  • Maru, bruised, beaten, &c.

  • Matau, (sometimes with Ngapuhi;) e. g., [gap — reason: unclear]ore e matau i a au, understood.

  • Mate, dead.

  • Mau, caught.

  • Mawheto, loosed (as a knot.)

  • Mimiti, dried up.

  • Moti, destroyed, &c., (corresponding to the phrase clean sweep; (Waikato.)

  • Motu, cut.

  • Mutu, ended.

  • Oti, finished.

  • Ongeonge, (same as Hoha.)

  • Pahure, passed by.

  • Pahemo, idem.

  • Pakaru, broken. N.B.,—Pākaru, is active.

  • Pareho, consumed.

  • Pau, idem.

  • Riro, departed.

  • Rite, completus, perfectus, (sometimes.)

  • Riwha, gapped.

  • Tahuri. overturned.

  • Toremi, sunk into (as into a bog, &c.)

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  • Tu, wounded, &c.

  • Whanau, used sometimes as v.n., bring fortk; sometimes as part. adj., brought forth or born.

  • Whara, hurt (by accident.)

  • Wera, burnt.

  • Ngaro, lost, destroyed, &c.

  • Ngenge, tired.

  • Ngonga, beaten (same as Maru.)

§. 15. That we are correct in denominating such words, as the above, “participial adjectives,” will appear from the consideration that they will assume the form of an adjective, or participle, according to the nature of the word by which they may be translated: thus marie may be translated quiet, and be considered an adjective; or pacified, and be considered a participle. Neither indeed will it appear strange that an adjective should be found, in one language, exactly corresponding to a participle in another, if we only reflect on the origin of the following adjectives of the English; exact, competent, complete, perfect, correspondent, &c., &c.

Like adjectives, these words will assume the form of a verb, when in connexion with the verbal participles. Indeed, (as we have already observed,) our impression is, that, the more we examine, the more shall we be led to think that a genuine verb is by no means a common thing in Maori; and that substantives, adjectives, and other classes, are the fountains to which most of the verbs of the language may be traced.