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Grammar of the New Zealand Language

Chapter VIII. — Of the Prepositions

page 55

Chapter VIII.
Of the Prepositions.

Scarcely any part of Maori is more worthy of attention than the prepositions. In no language, that we are acquainted with, are their powers so extensive. While, in common with those of English and Hebrew, they serve to express those relations, which in some languages are chiefly marked by the different endings of the nouns, they extend their influence still farther, and are, in many instances, of material importance in determining the time of the sentence in which they are placed.

They are simple and compound. The simple are those which, in construction, take no other preposition into union with them. The principal prepositions of this class are as follows:

  • E, by.

  • I, by, with, from, to, through, in, at, than.

  • Ki, with, to, for, at, according to, in.

  • Kei, at.

  • No, of, from.

  • Na, of, by, through.

  • Mo, for (or because of), for (possession), at &c., &c.

  • Ma, for, by, concerning.

  • Hei, at, for.

  • O, of.

  • A, at.

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  • Ko, at.

  • To, up to.

The compound prepositions are those which, like the composite of Hebrew, require one or more of the simple to set forth their meaning. They are as follows:

  • Runga, upon or above.

  • Raro, beneath.

  • Mua, before.

  • Muri, behind.

  • Roto, or ro, inside.

  • Waho, outside.

  • Tua, other side.

  • Pahaki, other side, or this side of, (used in describing the position of an object.)

  • Tai, idem.

  • Waenga, midst of.

  • Tata, near.

  • Tawhiti, far off.

The meaning and uses, however, of the above, both simple, and compound, are exceedingly various; and the attention of the student is therefore requested to the following notices respecting them.*

E, by (applied to the agent, not the instrument.) is always prefixed to the agent when a passive verb precedes; e.g.,

  • Kua kainga e te kuri, was devoured by the dog.

  • Kua kitea e Hone, was seen by John.

  • Kua patua te ngaru e te ua, the waves were beaten down by the rain.

When neuter verbs assume the passive form the agent follows, as in regular transitive verbs, and is page 57 preceded by e; e.g.

  • Katahi ano a kona ka takotoria e te tupeka, now for the first time has that place been laid upon by tobacco—now for the first time has tobacco lain there.

  • Kangia e te ahi, kindled upon by the fire, i. e. having a fire kindled (there).

Verbal nouns, and verbs preceded by such words as hohoro, oti, ahei, hei, pau, taea, taihoa, taria, &c., will take e after them; e.g.

  • Ngaunga e te ra, a scorching by the sun.

  • Kua oti te patu e au, the killing has been finished by me; i.e. I have killed (it).

  • E kore e ahei te hapai e ahau, the lifting cannot be accomplished by me, i.e., I cannot lift (it).

The following, also, are instances in which e is found after the active verb—after a verb, at least, active in form.

  • Me wero e koe, you must stab it.

  • Me wewete e ia, he must let it go.

  • He mea hanga e te ringaringa, a thing made by the hand.

  • Ka te arai mai i taku ahi e koe, (a Waikatocism), (see!) you exclude the fire from me.

I, by, (follows a neuter verb, no matter whether the agent be animate or inanimate:

  • Kua mate i a Hone, killed by John.

  • Pakaru i te hau, broken by the wind.

  • Ka mate ahau i te wai, I am dead by water, i.e., I am thirsty.

2. With.

  • Kia haere atu ahau i a koe? Shall I go with you?

  • Ka riro mai i a au, will depart with me, i.e., I shall take, or obtain it.

Note.—In this latter sentence foreigners often make mistakes, and render it, ka riro mai ki a au. Wherever obtaining, receiving, page 58 taking, for possession, or such like, is intended, i mostly signifies the person, ki the place; as in the following examples:

  • Ka riro to kotiro i te Kainga maori, your servant girl will be taken away by (the people) of the native place.

  • Ka riro to kotiro ki te kainga maori, your servant girl will go to the native place.

If the following passage were properly and correctly translated, how different would its meaning be from that intended by the speaker! kia riro atu ratou i te hunga nanakia, rescue them out from the cruel people. The true meaning of the passage, as it stands, is, Let them depart into the power of the cruel.

3. From.

  • Ihea koe? From whence do you (come)?

  • Ki tetahi rongoa i a Hone, for some medicine from John.

  • Inoia he ngakau hou i a Ia, pray for a new heart from him.

Note.—For the difference between i and no see the latter proposition § 4. Under this head may be mentioned a partitive sense in which i is sometimes taken; e.g.,

  • Tangohia i ā Hone, take some of John's.

4. To, (denoting possession, used somewhat similarly to the dative we find in Latin when sum is used for habeo;) e.g.,

  • I a au tenei kainga, this is my farm (or possession).

  • Kahore he maripi i a au, there is no knife to me; I have no knife.

Note.—Beginners are often misled by natives and each other in the use of this preposition. Such sentences as the following are incorrect, I a koe haere, go thou, I a koe korero, you said. It should be, Haere koe; and, nau i korero.

5. Through, (or in consequence of),

  • E kore e tae mai nga raupo i te ua, the raupo cannot be brought here in consequence of the rain.

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6. In, or at.

  • To tatou matua i te rangi, our Father in Heaven.

  • I hea tenei e takoto ana? Where has this been lying? In the cupboard.

  • E aha ana kae i kona? What are you doing there?

7. At, (past time),

  • I te aonga ake o te ra ka haere mai matou, on the next day we came here.

8. At, (future),

  • I te ra horoi whare ka haere ake koe ki a matou, on Saturday you will come to us.

9. Than, (used in comparison); (vid. S. adjectives),

  • E rangi tenei i tena, this is better than that.

10. Under this head may be classed some instances that cannot well be reduced to any of the above rules:

  • E hara koe i te rangatira noku, you are not my master.

  • E hara i a koe, (a kind of jocose phrase corresponding, perhaps, to that of some in England, you are a pretty fellow.

The following examples seem to be opposed to rule 1, and are therefore deserving of notice. They are perhaps confined to Waikato:

  • Ka timu te tai i a tatou, the tide for us (to pull with) will ebb.

  • Haere mai ki te wahi ruru i a koe, come to the spot sheltered for you.

  • Kei te moe i ona karu, he is indulging his eyes with sleep.

In such instances as these, we should regard i as pleonastic, somewhat like, perhaps, the prepositions from and in of Hebrew and Arabic.

The student should ever be mindful of the distinction between the preposition i and the particle by which the accusative, (as it would be called in Latin.) page 60 is denoted. This particle has, of itself, no specific meaning. In many instances its use is similar to that of êhth in Hebrew; e.g.,

  • A ka kite te Atua i te maramatanga, and God saw the light, Gen. i. 4.

  • Kua whakarere ratou i a Ihowa, they have forsaken Jehovah.

It follows an active verb, whereas the preposition follows the neuter, and signifies by. The uses of the two words are totally opposite, as may be seen in the following example. A young teacher wishing to say, sin produces pain, thus expressed his sentiment: Ko te kino ka whanau i te mamae. Now, whanau is not an active verb. It is a participial adjective. It is used correctly in John iii. 8, Whanau i te Wairua, born of the Spirit. The sentence therefore that we have adduced, if strictly translated, would run thus, sin is born of, or produced by pain.

Ki, with, (denotes the instrument); e.g.,

  • Patua ki te rakau, beaten with a stick.

Note.—When used in this sense it very rarely follows neuter verbs; for example it would not be correct to say, Ka wera i a au ki te ahi, it will be burned up by me with fire. Some passive verb, as tahuna, &c. should, in this case precede instead of wera. The following form, however, is correct:

  • E kore e ora ki tena, will not be satisfied with that quantity (of food).

  • E kore e oti ki tena, will not be completed with that.

Many speakers confound the instrumental character (if we may so speak) of this preposition with another use of the word with, which, we believe, is seldom denoted by ki.

If, for example, we had to translate into Latin the following sentence, “to speak with fear;” (i.e. timidly,) how incorrect would it be to render fear into the ablative that is used for denoting an instrument! All would see that dicere metu does not express that meaning, and that cum metu dicere, or something to that effect, was the true rendering. So also here, wherever appendage, page 61 connexion, and such like is intended, ki is, we believe, a preposition that is very seldom called into use. We therefore disapprove of such a sentence as the following:

  • Inoi atu ki te ngakau aroha, pray with a loving heart.

It should however be noticed that ki is sometimes found in other uses of the word with, in which no instrumentality is designed; e.g.,

  • Taku mahinga ki a koe, my working with you; i.e., my work in your service.

  • E riri ana ki a koe, is angry with you.

This last example, however, might perhaps be most correctly translated at; as in the following:

  • E titiro mal ana ki a koe, is looking at you.

On this use of ki we shall have to remark in the Syntax.

2. To,

  • Ho mai ki a au, give it to me.

  • Haere ki Manukau, go to Manukau.

  • Te rohe ki a koe, the boundary to you; i.e., for or of your side.

3. For,

  • Tetahi ki a koe, (fetch) a (garment) for yourself.

4. At (past time),

  • I tanumia ki reira, was buried there.

  • I maku ki runga ki te poti, was wet on board the boat.

5. At (future time),

  • Ki te mane ka hoe mai, on the Monday will pull, or paddle, here.

  • Kei roa ki reira, be not long there.

6. According to,

  • E ai ki tana, according to what he says; i.e., as he would have it, &c.

  • Ki ta ratou, ki taua taro na, he kikokiko, according to them, as concerning that bread, it is flesh; i.e., they maintain that that bread is flesh.

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We would here suggest by way of corrollary that in quoting the sentiments of any writer, the most appropriate form for the phrase “according to” would be ki ta, as in the above example. Thus the gospel according to St. Matthew might be well rendered by “ko te rongo pai ki ta Matiu;” the rule, according to my opinion, is, &c., “ko te tikanga, ki taku whakaaro, ko &c.”

It is used also where if would be employed in English:

  • Ki te haere ahau, If I go,

Sometimes (in Waikato) it is used pleonastically:

  • Kahore ki te matara te haere mai, it was not such a distance but he might have come.

Frequently, in consequence of the elliptical character of the language, it is found in various other uses, which it is difficult to reduce to rule. The following are a few examples:

  • E noho ana koe ki te kai mau? are you staying from food?

  • Te tatau ki a au, the door to me; i.e., open the door for or to me.

  • Ka riro te waka ki a koe, the canoe for you will be gone; i.e., the canoe that is to take you will, &c.

  • Heoi ano ki a tame ko te whare, let the tent be the only thing for the bull (to carry).

  • Taria e hoe ki a au, delay your pulling (or paddling for me; i.e., wait for me.

  • Tikina atu tetahi kete, ki te kete nui, ki te kete hou, fetch a basket, let it be a large basket, let it be a new basket.

  • I riri ahau ki reira, thereupon, or at that thing, was I angry.

  • I haere mai ahau ki a koe ki te waka ki a au, I have come to you for the canoe for me; i.e., to get a loan of your canoe.

From the above sentence the student will form an idea of how much the business of language is performed in Maori by prepositions.

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Kei, At.—It denotes chiefly present time; e.g.

  • Keihea? Kei te kainga. Where is it? At the settlement.

2. At. (future time.) It is not unfrequently found in such constructions as the following:

  • Kei te mane ka haere mai, on Monday he will come here.

3. Sometimes, in animated language, it is used instead of ko before the nominative case; e.g.,

  • Kei te ringaringa o Ngakete, aroarohaki kau ana, the hand of Ngakete, it was all a quiver.

4. Occasionally, in Waikato, it is used in the following construction: kua riro kei te hoe mai, he is gone to fetch it (the canoe). We are aware that it has been said that there should be a stop at riro, and that properly the above may be said to consist of two sentences, as follows: he is gone, he is fetching it. We are, however, certain that many sentences will be heard, in which no stop can be detected in the native pronunciation.

5. Sometimes it is used in the sense of like:

  • Kei te ahi e toro, like fire that burns.

  • Koia ano kei te kowhatu, exactly as if it were a stone.

No, of, (the sign of the possessive case.) In this signification he is the only article that it will admit before it; e.g.,

  • He wanaunga no Hone, a relation of John's.

The following construction, however, is an exception:

  • Katahi ano te potae pai no Hone, for the first time the good hat of John's, i.e., what an excellent hat is that of John's!

Note.—We may here observe that, in denoting the possessive case, no follows he, and o follows te, or nga. The following sentence is incorrect:

  • Ano he tamariki o te Atua, as children of God.

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The he here requires no after it. We shall have occasion hereafter (vid. verbs Syntax) to mention an exception to this rule which is sometimes heard among the tribes to the southward of Waikato.

2. From, (that time),

  • No te mane i haere mai ai, he came here (last) Monday.

3. From, (that cause),

  • No reira i kino ai, from that cause was he displeased.

Note.—In all examples of this, and the preceding head, no will take a past tense after it.

4. From, (that place),

  • No Matamata tenei tangata, this man belongs to Matamata.

There is a distinction between this meaning of no, and that of i, (vid, i. 3.) which is very useful and important. No signifies the place to which you belong, whether it be England, Rotorus, &c. I signifies the place you have been visiting as a mere sojourner.

Thus if we were to ask a person, “Nohea koe?” he would most probably reply, “No Hauraki, no Waikato,” or some place of which he was a denizen; but if we were to ask “I hea koe?” he would then mention some place he had been just visiting. This distinction does not seem to be so clearly recognized at the northward as it is in all the central parts of the island.

Na, Of, the active form of no, (vid. Syntax for the distinction between o and a).

  • Na wai tena kuri? whose is that dog?

2. By,

  • Na Hone i patu, was beaten by John.

Note.—Na does not in this sense take a passive after it. It is not quite certain that na does, in such sentences as the above, signify by. The subject will be more fully considered in the Syntax. (vid. verbs).

Na, in this sense, always takes i after it. The following sentence is incorrect: Nana, hoki kua tohutohu enei mea, he also has appointed these things. For na followed by ka (vid. Ma. 5.)

3. Through or by (what cause, instrumentality, &c.)

  • Na to aha i mate ai, from what did he die?

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Sometimes, in this use of it, it is followed by a passive voice, with ai.

  • Na te aha i pahuatia ai? for what cause was he plundered?

  • Na te aha i meinga ai? why was it done?

Sometimes (but rarely) it is followed by an active verb:

  • Na te mea i tuhituhi atu ai au, the reason of my writing (is because) &c.

4. By (place, conveyance. &c.

  • Na uta, by land.

  • Na te kaipuke, by ship.

  • Na Hauraki, (went) by Hauraki.

Mo.—N.B. Mo and ma seem to be future forms of no and na, in many particulars.

1. For or Because Of, (followed most frequently by a past tense, even though the meaning be present;) e.g.,

  • Mo te aha koe i aroha ai ki a te Karaiti? why do you love Christ?

  • Mo te aha koe i mauahara tonu ai ki a au? why ko you bear a continual grudge to me?

  • Mo te tutu ki te kura i whakatikia ai, for disobedience in School were (they) deprived (of them.)

Sometimes, however, it is followed by other particles:

  • Mo te aha kia riri kau? why should he be angry?

  • Mo te aha koe ka tutu nei kia au? why are you thus disobedient to me?

2. For, (denoting appropriation, use, or some action passing on to the noun or pronoun to which it is prefixed:)

  • Ho mai moku, give to me (for my use).

  • Hei kainga mou, as a farm for you (or land to reside upon).

  • He patu moku, a beating for me, i.e., to beat me.

  • He raka mo taku pouaka, a lock for my box.

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Marua mai moku, take it (from them) for me, i.e., as a thing for me, for my benefit, use, &c.

3. For (in exchange), he utu mo taku mahi.

Sometimes but rarely it is found in the following construction:

  • Me aha te utu mou? what is the payment for you to be?

4. For.

  • Whakawateatia he huarahi mo mea ma, clear a road for our friends.

5. At, (future time),

  • Mo amua haere ai, go at a future period.

6. Concerning. Nga kupu i korerotia ki a koe mo Tipene, the report that was related to you concerning Stephen.

We have observed mo used by foreigners in sentences in which for would appear to be pleonastic, as open the door for me; dress this wound for me, &c. We have no hesitation however in affirming that mo is never used in such a construction.

7. Used with a verbal noun to denote a preparedness, &c., for some future act; e.g.

  • Mo nga haererenga ki reira ko era kai, that When I go there, there may be food (ready for me); i. e. I cultivate at that place that I may have food when I visit it. Vid. S.

Ma. The active form of mo. (Vid. S.) It implies always future time.

1. For.

  • Ma wai tena kuri? for whom is that dog?

2. By or more strictly, for,

  • Ma Hone e patu, let it be killed by John; lit. let the killing be for John.

3. By, (what means, &c.)

  • Ma te whakapono ka ora ai, by faith shall (we) be saved.

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4. Sometimes it is used to denote a simple future:

  • Maku e korero, I will speak (to him.)

5. It is very frequently employed in hypothetic and contingent propositions; e.g.

  • Ma nga Pakeha e tohe, kaua e noho, If the Europeans press (to stop with them) do not remain.

  • Mau e pai ka haere au, If you please I will go.

  • Haria atu: maua, e whakapai, mana e whakakino, take it (to him): (it will be) for him to be pleased with it, (it will be) for him to be displeased (with it).

A very common way of denoting contingency is to associate ma or na with a personal pronoun, even though the latter have no direct meaning in the sentence. We give the following sentence in full, that the reader may better understand our meaning.

  • He tangata Atua, ka puta mai ki a ia te kai, ka whiua te tahi ki tahaki, hei whakahere i tona Atua, mana ka pau i te kuri ranei, mana ka pau i te poaka ranei. A man who has a God, if food is brought to him (to the man), part (of it) is thrown to one side as an offering to his God, (as chance may have it) it may be eaten by the dog, or it may be eaten by the pig.

  • Nana ka nui te hau, nana ka iti, even though the wind be strong, even though it be light, (still does he carry on.)

To this interesting point of Maori criticism we shall return when we treat on the tenses; vid. S.

6. By, (with reference to place or conveyance) in the same sense as na; vid. Na. 4.

Ra, by, same as Ma 6; vid.

Hei, at,—always future,—appied to place, intention &c.

  • Hei kona tatari, at that place stop.

  • Hei reira korero ai, there upon speak.

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  • Hei konei, be (you) here;—a farewell.

2. It is often used to denote purpose, object, use, &c., where in English we should use as, to, for, instead, &c., e.g.

  • Haria etahi kanga hei o mou, take some corn as viaticum for you.

  • Hei aha tena? hei rewa mo te poti; what is that for? as a mast for the boat.

  • Kowai hei tiki? who is to fetch (it)?

Sometimes we hear the following:

  • Aua hei pena: do not so.

3. Occasionally, but rarely, it is used to denote frequent action; e.g.

  • Ko wai hei ruke tonu i nga riwai nei, who is this that is continually throwing about the potatoes?

Note.—A very strange use of this preposition is to be found, in some parts of the south-eastern coast; as in the following examples:—

  • Haore koe hei rakau, go fetch a stick.

  • Haere koe hei wai, go fetch water.

On the western coast such an address would be a most offensive curse.

O, of; e.g.

  • Te whare o Hone, the house of John.

A, of; the active form of o; vid. S.

  • Te mahi a Hone, John's work.

N.B.—We sometimes meet with to and ta; e.g.

  • Ko to Hone ware, John's house.

Such words however are clearly composed of to and o, or a.

A. (This seems to be different from the article a, as also from the foregoing.)

  • At.—A te mane, on, or at, the Monday (we will go,) &c.

Ko. (This seems to be different from the verbal particle ko;—vid. verbal particles Syntax.

  • At.—Ko reira noho ai, at that place stop.

  • Ko reira korero ai, then speak.

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To, up to. The following is the only construction in which we have heard this preposition.

  • To nga hope te wai, the water is up to the loins.

  • Ka to nga uma te wai nei, the water is up to the breast.

N.B.—To almost always takes a plural number after it.

Compound Prepositions.—One or two examples will be a sufficient illustration of all.

Runga is capable of the following combinations: I runga i, ki runga ki, ki runga i, ki runga o, no runga no, no runga i, o runga o, kei runga kei, kei runga i, hei runga i, hei runga hei, mo runga mo, &c., &c. The first preposition in the combination and the meaning of the sentence will always determine the last.

Sometimes the adverbs ake and iho, (vid. adverbs,) as also the particles atu and mai, are postfixed to the prepositions to increase its force; e.g.

  • E ngari tena i runga ake, that which is above (it) is better.

  • A muri ake nei, hereafter.

A very singular use of roto (or ro) may be found in the neighbourhood of the East Cape: e.g.

  • Kei ro whare, inside the house.

  • Kei ro pouaka, in the box.

A similar use of waenga may be found in all parts of the island; e.g.

  • Kei waenga riwai, in the midst of the potatoe (field.)

  • Kei waenga mara, in the midst of the cultivation.

Its use however does not extend much beyond those instances.

A very common and elegant use of runga is, when it is employed in the sense of amongst, on, or with, to denote concomitancy, &c., &c.; as in the following examples:

  • I hokona e koe i runga i te he, you purchased it on a bad title.

  • Kei runga tenei i te mahi, we are now on the work; i.e. are busily engaged at work.

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  • E karakia ana i runga i te he, he worships on sin; i.e. while he worships God he practices sin.

The preceding examples suggest a good approximation to a form of expression which, we confess, we have been unable to find under the preposition ki; i.e. with noting concomitancy, (vid. ki (1), as in the following examples: “Pray with faith;” “love God with your whole heart.” In these sentences we should have no hesitation in using runga.

A very common form of, we believe, Maori origin, is,

  • Kia haere atu te inoi i runga i a te Karaiti, let the prayer go forth upon Christ.

The other compound prepositions may often be rendered very useful by giving them, as in the above, a figurative acceptation according with the nature of the subject. One or two examples will suffice.

Tua is thus employed:

  • He tau ki tua, a year is on the other side; this day year, what a long time (you intend to be absent)!

  • He mate kei tua, misfortune is on the other side, i.e. awaits you.

  • Kei tua o te ra tapu nei, next week.

The student should carefully remember that muri and mua do not exactly correspond with behind and before in English, and that tua is very frequently employed to denote those words.

We have heard the following very erroneous expressions from some old settlers:

  • Tutakina te tatau o te aroaro, shut the door of the front, i. e. the front door.

  • Kei muri i te whare, behind the house.

Muri and mua (as well as the substantive aroaro) are chiefly employed in connexion with living objects. When allusion is made to the date of events, the student will remember that the prepositions a, mo, mo, a, hei, kei, ko, hei a and ko a, denote future time, and that no, i, and o will always indicate past time.

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These prepositions will sometimes take verbal particles into connexion with them, and may be frequently found in other forms to occupy the place of verbs, substantives, and adverbs; vid. ch. 1, § 6. (c), ch. 7. § 1. (b), and ch. 9.

Sometimes we meet with other forms for denoting what would be represented by a preposition in English. Though their proper place belongs to the dictionary, we beg the reader's permission to insert a few here:

Puta noa i tera taha, (make its appearance out at the other side);—through.

  • A taea noatia tenei ra, or A tae noa ki tenei ra arrives on to or till it reaches this day.

  • A Mangapouri atu ana, even to Mangapouri.

  • I te takiwa, (in the interval);—between.

  • I te ritenga atu, (in the line or direction of);—ante and contraover against.

  • Ki tona aroaro, (to his front);—before.

  • I tetahi taha ona i tetahi taha, (on one side, on one side);—round about him.

  • Ki tera taha, (to the other side);—across (a stream).

The prefix whaka, when in union with a word, will impart the meaning of towards, and change it into an adverb; e. g.,

  • Kumea whakarunga, pull upwards.

  • Haere whaka tepa, go towards the pa.

  • I hoatu ai e ahau i whakaaro ki tona matua, I gave it to him in consideration of his father; (propter.)

  • Kihai ahau i whakaae, i whakaaro hoki ki a Hone; I did not assent on account of John; i. e. for John's sake.

The above form deserves, we think, the notice of our Missionary brethren as supplying a good approximation to an use page 72 of the word by, which we have not been able to find under the preposition ki or mo, viz., when it is used in adjuration. If, for example, we had to translate into prose the following stanza:—

By thy birth, and early years;
By thy griefs, and sighs, and tears;
Jesus look with pitying eye.
Hear, and spare us when we cry,

we should feel very reluctant to use either ki or mo. For, in that case, our Lord's hearing would be represented as a thing to be accomplished, or purchased by himself with his birth and early years—a version quite foreign from the original.

We should therefore prefer something to this effect:—“Whakarongo mai, tohungia hoki matou, &c., wakamaharatia tou whanautanga, &c.,” or, “kia mahara hoki ki tou whanautanga ki tou taitamarikitanga, &c., &c.”

Some, perhaps, would prefer—“I whanua nei hoki koe i taitamariki, &c.;” neither should we object to such a form. All we contend for is, that ki and mo will not answer, and that they would often, in such kind of sentences, convey very erroneous doctrines. Approximation to such a meaning is all we can hope for; and that is the best which differs least in sense from the original.

* Many of the following remarks belong properly to the Syntax. The student however will, we trust, find it advantageous to have the whole subject placed thus, in one connected view before him.

By neuter verbs, here, are intended also participial adjectives. (Vid, verbs, note, under head “Neuter.”)