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Grammar of the New Zealand Language

Of Negation

Of Negation.

Negative adverbs partake of the nature of verbal particles. We have given some examples of them in chapter vii., (vid. paradigm of the tenses,) and we shall have occasion also to notice them in the Syntax.

  • Hore, no; hore rawa, by no means.

  • Kahore, not and no.

  • Kaho, no.

  • Kao, no.

  • Kihai, not.

  • Kore, idem.

  • Tē, idem; tē whakaaro ia, who did not remember.

  • Aua, do not.

  • Auaka, do not.

  • Kaua, do not.

  • Kauaka, do not.

  • Kei, do not, and take care lest, or lest.

  • Aua hoki, (used in some parts of Waikato for) no, no; not at all.

  • E hara koe i te rangatira noku, you are not my master.

  • Kiano, (Ngapuhi) not yet.

Haunga,* not, (denoting exclusion, or exception); e.g.,

  • Haunga tena, not that, (but the other.)

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  • Aratakina mai te poaka; haunga to mea purepure, lead the pig here; not the speckled, (but the other.)

  • Kahore haunga, (Waikato) used sometimes instead of haunga.

  • Aua, & Au, I do not know.

  • Meho, (Waikato,) not at all, (used in abrupt replies.)

  • Hori, not at all, (used in abrupt replies.)

* Some, we believe, maintain that the adverb besides should be always rendered by haunga. It is true that, wherever exclusion or negation is indicated by that word, haunga will generally answer; e. g., E rus tekau ratou. haunga nga wahine, they were twenty, besides (that is not counting) the women. In the leading sense, however, of besides, vis., that of more over, addition to, haunga will, we are sure, seldom find an use; as in the following examples: “Besides you know,” “nobody thinks so besides yourself,” “There is nothing there ides the box,” “besides her he had no child.”