Chapter Two — The History of Horouta and that of Pawa (her Commander) and Kiwa (the Priest)
The History of Horouta and that of Pawa (her Commander) and Kiwa (the Priest)
In relating the history of Horouta, it is necessary to couple it with that of Pawa (her Commander) and Kiwa (the Priest).
Pawa, who was known by the people of Hawaiki as Pava, was not generally known by the people of Aotearoa. But it is agreed by reliable authorities that he came to New Zealand, and was the chief of the Horouta canoe, which preceded the Main Fleet of 1350 by four generations, or 100 years.
On reaching the east coast the canoe cruised along calling at different places, to beach finally in the present Gisborne Harbour. Kiwa, as Priest, was according to custom the first to land, and he claimed the land by planting the Mauri or sacred binding link between man and the land. In his declaration of ownership he named the place "Turanga-nui-o-Kiwa" or "the great standing place of Kiwa," which particular spot is near the present Turanga-nui Hotel in Gisborne. Later the name Turanga-nui was given to the whole of the Gisborne flat. When the town was laid out, the pakeha called it Gisborne, but the Maori people still call it Turanga.
During their occupation, Pawa proceeded to inspect the new land. On reaching the river he named it "Te Wai-o-Pawa" or "the water of Pawa", now known as the Wai-paoa River. On reaching a high hill past Muriwai, he named it after his dog "Te Kuri-a-Pawa," which place has since been renamed by Captain Cook "Young Nick's Head." Near Te Arai, his dog Whakao became lost in the bush, and wandering about, it whined continually thereby giving the place its present name "Pipi-whakao", or "the whining of Whakao."
After some time, for unknown reasons, Pawa returned in his canoe, leaving his daughter, Hine-akua, who had married Kahutuanui, the son of his contemporary, Kiwa. According to reliable information from the home land, he died at a small island called Opolu, north-west of Rai-atea Island. The fact that Pawa returned is fully supported by the fact that all lines of descent from him are only from his daughter, Hine-akua, whose mana (prestige) fell to Ruapani, who became the paramount chief of the whole of Turanga-nui-o-Kiwa, extending as far as Huiarau range beyond Wai-kare-moana Lake. In the Native Land Court all the Manga-poike lands were claimed under Ruapani, and so was the Waikare-moana land and the lake.
It has been stated by some people that the Horouta canoe landed at Pa-kirikiri, near Muriwai, Poverty Bay; where her voyage ended. This story is only of recent origin, and has no historical background. The landing of such an important vessel as a canoe of a migration, and the settling of the crew thereof would become universally known and marked with historical pride. The details would be passed down from generation to generation as in the case of the other canoes of the migration. The total ignorance of this landing place by the people who in habited the place is remarkable. They claim their inherited right and mana from Tamanuhiri, the eponymous ancestor of their tribal name "Ngai-Tamanuhiri", who inherited his mana from Tahu-Potiki, a descendant of the common ancestor Paikea, who is said to have been brought to New Zealand on a whale's back, and landed at Ahuahu (Great Mercury Island). Paikea settled finally at Whangara.
A keen, but unlearned student is apt to be confused nowadays by the modern story that the Takitimu and the Horouta canoes were one and the same. It is alleged that Takitimu was the original name, but that on a trial trip the canoe travelled so fast that the people exclaimed: "Horouta" meaning the "land swiftly passing", thus giving the canoe her second, name. This story, is a pure invention. The absurdity of it is clearly shown by the suggestion that a sacred canoe could be renamed merely by a simple observation after it had already been named and launched. The naming of such an important thing as a canoe or house was subject to careful selection and a sacred function as follows: After the work had been completed the tapu of the page 24tools employed in the works had to be taken off by a special ceremony. Then followed the naming and dedicating of the vessel to Tane, the god of the forest. After this followed the chanting of invocations for the protection and preservation of the canoe. Then followed the launching. On reaching the sea, and prior to the trial trip, incantations were again chanted by the priest to render the canoe seaworthy. After that the changing of name was unknown.
Takitimu was known throughout the island to be a very sacred canoe. Unlike other canoes of the Migration, she was not permitted to carry women, children nor cooked food, while Horouta was known to have brought females and cooked food. Therefore the story of the Takitimu and Horouta being one and the same will have to go by the board.
Some people claim that Horouta came with the Main Migration and was the eighth canoe of the fleet. This claim is strongly denied by the people of this island, who only recognise the seven canoes, viz., Takitimu, Tainui, Te Arawa, Mata-tua, Toko-maru, Aotea and Kurahaupo.
In support of the contention that the Horouta canoe preceded the Main Fleet by four generations, or 100 years, we present the genealogical tables set out below. In this table we take Kahungunui and Ruapani to be of the same generation for the reason that each married the other's daughter.page break page break
short. This is accounted for by the fact that the Takitimu migration did not bring their wives and children, and it was only when they reached New Zealand that Tamatea-Ariki-Nui married Toto, a descendant of Toi-Kai-rakau. The men in the other canoes were allowed to bring their wives and children.
The late Mr. Elsdon Best, who is known to be one of the highest authorities on Maori history, definitely stated (Tuhoe p. 194) that the Horouta canoe arrived in 1250.
The Ngati-Porou claimed Horouta to have been the canoe of their migration, and traced themselves from Hine-akua, who married Kahutuanui. In some lines the descents harked back, to Ruapani, who was the outstanding issue of Pawa and Kiwa, the principal persons of the canoe.
The people of Poverty Bay also claimed Horouta, and traced their connection principally from Ruapani. The Ngati-Kahungunu also claim part descent from the Horouta, and in the matter of blood, Kahungunu surely holds pride of place, viz.:—
Kahungunu married Ruareretai (the first daughter of Ruapani); Kahukuranui (the son of Kahungunu and Rongomai wahine) married Ruatupu-wahine (another daughter of Ruapani); Hine-manuhiri (daughter of Kahukura-nui and Tu-tei-honga) married Pukaru (son of Ruapani); Rongomai-papa (daughter of Kahungunu and Rongomai-wahine) married Ruapani himself, and finally Rakai-kihuora married Ruarauhanga (the last child of Ruapani). So, Kahungunu, his children and grand-children married into Ruapani and his children five times.
It was through the outcome of this strong fusion of blood with Ruapani that Tu-purupuru (the great-grandson of Kahungunu) became the sovereign power over the whole of Turanga-nui-a-Kiwa, as has been related in the history of Taraia which is contained in this book.
The mana of Ruapani was not confined to the land of Turanga-nui-o-Kiwa, but was extended as far as the Huiarau Range, beyond Waikare-moana. This is shown by the fact that, the Mangapoike lands which were investigated in 1884 were claimed under Ruapani as the original ancestor. The land surrounding the Waikare-moana lake was also claimed under Ruapani, and so was the lake itself, which title was investigated as late as 1917.
When the battle over the killing of Tu-te-kohi's dog Kaure-huanui by the Rakai-paaka people resulted in the defeat of the latter, Rakai-paaka and his people migrated to the land of his grandmother, Rongomai-wahine, at Mahia. Hine-manuhiri, the page 26 sister of Rakai-paaka and her family, migrated to the land of Ruapani at Manga-aruhe, opposite Marumaru, where they built the pa Te Maania. For further details see the history of Tama-te-rangi.
On one occasion Tama-te-rangi decided to claim a very wide tract of the land for himself. He laid out a boundary at one end and set out to erect a similar dividing mark at the other end of the coveted block. His brother, Makoro, heard of his intentions and decided on a like move. He also erected a boundary pole and then set out towards Tama's boundary. The brothers met in the centre of the land and a quarrel resulted. In the fight Makoro severely twisted Tama-te-rangi's neck. Peace was made, however, and on the site of their meeting a boundary post named "Te Taita-a-Makoro" was set up. The spot was on the Huiarau range beyond Waikare-moana, and is still known to-day.
The people that live at Ohaoko, Te Arai, who are the holders of a large interest in the Mangapoike block A under the right of Ruapani still go under the hapu name Ngati-Ruapani. The owners of Mangapoike E still retain that hapu name, also the people of Waimako and Waikare-moana. The Ngati-Kahungunu proper claimed their title to the Waikare-moana lands and the lake under Ruapani.
The Ngati-Porou people claimed Horouta only by genealogical descent but their mana has been extinguished by outside powers. Certain champions of Te Aitanga-a-Mahaki and Rongo-whakaata tribes have lost their mana through the killing of Tupurupuru, the sole inheritor of the mana of Ruapani in the Turanganui-o-Kiwa lands. Finally, the driving off the land of Pukaru (son of Ruapani) and his children, Tama-te-rangi and others, resulted in Te Aitanga-a-Mahaki and Rongowhakaata tribes basing their claim to the Turanganui-a-Kiwa lands as conquered territory.
So it becomes apparent that the Ngati-Kahungunu of Wairoa are the only real descendants of the Horouta canoe. Therefore, if Pawa were to return in his canoe he would, no doubt, pitch everybody overboard except the Ngati-Kahungunu of Wairoa, not only for their staunchness in retaining his title to the land and the name, but also for the recognition and appreciation shown to his canoe by its being perpetuated on the front barge board of Takitimu House. This splendid carved representation is the only sign of recognition displayed throughout the East Coast.