Salient. Victoria University Student Newspaper. Volume. 34, Number 15. August 4, 1971
This article contributed by Owen Wilkes, a physicist at Canterbury University, has been condensed. Several American projects which have negligible military involvement have been cut from this article
Apart from the brief splurges of publicity that surrounded Omega in 1968 and Woodbourne in 1970, American military research has largely proceeded free of the limelight in this country. There is however, far more to the American military presence than at first meets the eye. There are often vital strategic reasons behind what would at first appear to be 'normal scientific investigations.'
There are other ramifications of the American presence that somehow have never been revealed by the national press. That U.S. planes at Harewood have been used as prisons for American political defectors, that American planes have photographed anti-war marchers, that U.S. forces have infringed N.Z. sovereignty by illegally landing and surveying offshore islands, etc., etc......
Such are the habits of this military cuckoo.
|1.||A VLF series direction-finding receiver.|
|2.||A VLF receiver measuring phase and amplitude variation of transmitted signals.|
|3.||A photometer and other optical sensors measuring air glow.|
|4.||A HF receiver for reception of WWV. It is thought that this is for monitoring propagation instabilities rather than merely receiving of time signals.|
|5.||A telluric current electrode array. The recording gear for this was not seen, but the array is visible on air photos.|
|6.||A microbarograph for measuring short term air pressure variation. Official statements have never gone beyond saying that this station studies 'aero-space disturbances and their effects on radio communications' although the Prime Minister did once admit that the 'disturbances' might include nuclear explosions. (21/6/63). All the equipment known to operate at Longbank would be compatible with explanation that the base participates in the detection and identification of nuclear explosions in the earth's atmosphere and in space. This interpretation is fully developed and documented in a paper 'Report on USAF Base at Woodbourne' prepared for the N.Z. University Students Association. Copies are available.|
Mt. John Satellite Tracking Station
This station is intended to track all satellites orbiting the earth. It is run by Detachment 1, 18th Surveillance Squadron, 14th Aerospace Force of the USAF Aerospace Defence Command. Presence of the base in N.Z. is covered by 'An Exchange of Notes Constituting an Agreement' between the U.S. and N.Z. dated 9 July 1968. According to this agreement the purpose of this station is "to facilitate space flight operations contributing to the advancement of scientific knowledge through the optical observation of earth orbiting space vehicles, the application of this knowledge to the direct benefit of man, and the development of space vehicle, of advanced capabilities, including manned space vehicles".
However according to a USAF publication on the Aerospace Defence Command Mt John is one of a worldwide network of optical sensors which feed data into a Spadats (Space Detection and Tracking System) computer in the USAF underground Combat Operations Center in Colorado where orbital elements of all satellites are calculated so that if it is deemed necessary any one of them can be shot down by the Aerospace Command's anti-satellite defence system, a suite of Thor missiles based at Johnson Island in the U.S. Pacific Trust Territories. Other work being pursued includes satellite geodesy (the accurate measurement of the size shape and gravitational field of the earth) and calibration of Other instrumentation involved in space programs.
Tracking of satellites is carried out by a Baker Nunn camera which possess immense light-gathering power, and yields photographs of the satellite against a background of stars. These photographs are timed to a ten-thousandth of a second, and after processing, the satellites position can be read off them accurate to 4 seconds of arc (10 microns as measured on the film) The resultant data is relayed back to Spadats by teletype machines kept in a high security communications centre guarded by a heavy steel door, thick concrete walls, and a built-in self destruction device. The base has its own electric generator, 20,000 gallons of water stored on the base, and quantities of emergency food supplies in the form of one-day man packs, and appears to be designed to function independent of the rest of New Zealand in the event of an emergency.
In a subsidiary base at Washdyke north of Timaru, the Detachment employs 15 men in office work, logistics, etc. associated with the satellite tracking.
Omega Navigation Transmitter.
The possibility that the USN might build a transmitter for its Omega Navigation System in New Zealand was first mentioned on 14th June 1968. When physicists and others pointed out that this system would be used by nuclear submariner as an aid to accurate targeting of the Polaris missile a vigorous protest ensued A long winded debate between anti Omega scientists, and students on the one hand and the Government on the other followed, some landmarks of which were a briefing organised by the Prime Minister's office, a report by the Royal Society of New Zealand, numerous articles in the University of Canterbury student newspaper, Canta a scholarly analysis by R.N. Gould, a survey of the technical literature relating to Omega and an error-strewn "not for attribution document by the External Affairs Department.
On 15 April 1969 a U.S.N. Omega Project team arrived in New Zealand for negotiations on the transmitter siting. No announcement on the results of these negotiations was made public, but an announcement was promised in early May. A lengthy examination of the anti-Omega arguments uncovered mostly minor errors in documentation but being better than anything the Government had done, has been accepted by many as a refutation of the anti-Omega arguments. The Government has never attempted a detailed, documented refutation of the position taken by those who say Omega will be used by Polaris submarines.
After the visit by the American technical experts the controversy died down, but further technical papers kept coming to light which confirmed that Omega was intended for nuclear submarines.
Immediately after the Omega Project team had visited New Zealand and then Australia, rumours began to the effect that the transmitter was to be built in Australia. A DMS report on Omega suggests that the decision was made in May 1969 to locate the transmitter in Australia, at which time the transmitter components were ordered. An Omega Project officer has indicated that Tasmania has been selected as early as January 1968. The Australian Prime Minister did not announce until 18 March 1971 that the transmitter would be built in Tasmania. Possibly controversy about Omega was allowed to continue unchecked all this time in New Zealand as a diversion while uninterrupted negotiations and preparations proceeded in Australia.
U.S. Navy Base, Christchurch Airport
This base was originally established as a base for military units supporting International Geophysical Year (1957-59) activities in the Antarctic. Its existence for the duration of the I.G.Y. was formalised by an agreement dated 24 December 1958 "regarding the provision of facilities in New Zealand for U.S. Antarctic expeditions." When the I.G.Y. terminated the agreement was extended indefinitely. At first this base was probably used only in connection with Antarctic activities and functioned only during the summer, but between 1962 and 1964 it became operational year-round and began receiving flights at about weekly intervals which had no connection with Antarctic activities. These flights, by heavy transport aircraft, originally C-124 Globemasters and other piston-driven aircraft, originate at Norton Air Force Base, California and pass through Hickam A.F.B., Hawaii, on their way to Christchurch From Christchurch they originally (pre-1967) went to Avalon A.A.F.B., near Melbourne, and latterly to Richmond A.A.F.B., New South Wales, and thence to Alice Springs (serving Pine Gap BNEWS (Ballistic Missile Early Warning System) station and from July 1 1968 onwards North West Cape Naval Communications Station. They return to die U.S. via American Samoa and/or Pacific Trust Territories. Little has ever been stated officially about the purpose of these flights, the only N.Z. announcement being that of the Prime Minister "All U.S. non-commercial aircraft making use of Harewood are cleared for entry into N.Z. subject to established diplomatic procedures. Regular flights are flown to N.Z. as part of a program of support for U.S. Government facilities in New Zealand. These facilities are the subject of agreements with the New Zealand Government which have been published," In fact, the only such agreements are those relating to Project Longbank and Mt John which provide that "U.S. aircraft may be based at agreed airports within N.Z." The "U.S. Government facilities" being supported are presumably Project Longbank and the Mt John Satellite Tracking Station.
Up to two flights per day between Christchurch and Woodbourne were often flown by the USN C-47 aircraft formerly stationed permanently at Christchurch, and since this aircraft was retired to the Ferrymead Museum, it is believed that this ferrying role has been taken over by RNZAF C-130 Hercules USN trucks from the Christchurch base make regular trips to the Washdyke HQ of the Mt John Satellite Tracking detachment carrying supplies and equipment.
At times the regular pattern of more or less weekly flights is broken, a C-141 Starlifter may be stationed at Christchurch for a week or more while other Starlitters come and go. In Mid-May 1970 for example, while C-14l/60130 sat on the tarmac for 3 days, 2 other C-141 s (60177 and 50280) touched down for a few hours only while a DC6 (03270) stayed about 36 hours and a C-130 Hercules called in for about 24 hours. All the regular flights and most of the irregular once are by aircraft of the 63rd Military Airlift Wing of the USAF Military Air Command (Macy Mac has extensive warehouses on the case distinct from those confirmed with Antarctic support, which is provided by USS Squardron VXE-6. To service these flights a CCA (Ground Control Approach) radar is operated year-round: the services of this radar are not available to New Zealand aircraft except in emergency.
Harewood's summer population is about 700. it has accommodation for 1100; and at peak times, particularly at the beginning of the Antarctic season, this accommodation is insufficient. Before year-round military activities began the base was staffed during the winter by 6 men employed on security maintenance. Currently about 50 men operate the base during the winter.
On the far side of Christchurch Airport the USN operates a Naval Communication Unit on a 24-hour, 7 day a week basis. This cons of a building about the size of a house with standby dice generator, and several large antennae including a log periodic, [unclear: b] gain antenna (suitable for use over a wide range of frequencies) omnidirectional low angle radiator, and two rhombic antennae. [unclear: C] of the communication unit is unknown, but it is somewhat m elaborate than that at McMurdo (Antarctic) which cost $1,500, [unclear: C] in 1960. Administratively, the communication facility appears to completely separated from Operation Deepfreeze, and is part of U.S. Defence Communications network, linked with Hawaii, un the overall direction of the Defence Communications Agency.
Apart from the logistics flights and the communication [unclear: un] Harewood functions as a general purpose military base. The C which was formerly permanently stationed there was in constant for what were called "training flights" and for other activities so as flying journalists and photographers to view the aircraft car, "America" out at sea, and taking aerial photographs of anti-Om demonstrators gathered in Latimer Square on 28 [unclear: Ji] 1968. Other activities include handling public relations work is other shore tasks for a visiting U.S. guided missile frigate providing jail facilities for anti-war deserters from the Providence (including one arrested by New Zealand police [unclear: minu] after he was married in Wellington. Harewood base public relation personnel organised a celebration of the Battle of the Coral anniversary in May 1968 which included a visit by a U.S. millitary band and in 1971 were responsible for the screening of a propaganda film on the threat posed by the Soviet Navy. In October 1970 a U.S.N. Orion anti-submarine aircraft was based Deepfreeze base during Exercise Longex, a U.S.-U.K.N. Australian naval exercise.
There are various other military or possibly military project associated with the Harewood Base. These are listed in the section following:
Military Research Contracts in N.Z. Universities
Over the past few years New Zealand Universities, especially Canterbury University, have performed scientific work un contract to the U.S. Department of Defense. In some cases military significance of the work is hard to see, but it can assumed that the U.S. Defense Department is not fostering p science without hoping for some eventual military usefull Indeed it is now not allowed to so so, since Section 203 of the Military Procurement and Research Authorization Bill requires the Department of Defense shall not finance "any research programme or study unless such project or study has a direct and appart relationship to a specific military function or operation Commenting on Section 203, John S. Foster, director of [unclear: Defe] Research and engineering said "I do not expect that implementation of these sections will entail any new type of review of selection"—in other works all past research had usefulness, but this usefulness had not been emphasized in the [unclear: pi] A Defense Department memo stresses this "Insufficient [unclear: attent] has geen given to making clear to Congress the basis for deciding work in a particular field and particularly the connections; between relatively basic research and long range Defense problem missions which require such research."
Congressman Mike Mansfield has said "Section 203 makes abundantly clear to students, to scientists, to officers universities..., that money received from defence appropriates for research is needed to carry out a specific military need function and is directly related to the defence needs of country." In the U.S. students have organised demonstration sit-ins occupations and even riots to force their universities abandon defense-tainted" money, here in New Zealand it is quietly accepted.
The total value of military grants made to New Zealand Universities is unknown, but some figures can be presented which give an idea of what the total might be. Over the period of 1962 for example, 8 grants brought $165,000 to the University Canterbury, and there are another 6 grants for which values are known (although it is possible that the money alloted to these grants is already included in the $165,000), On 1 January [unclear: 19] according to a U.S. Defense Department summary four contain with New Zealand Universities were underway, worth a total $96,400. These contracts run for an average period of 2 year or so it might be said that New Zealand Universities are receiving military money at the rate of about $50,000 per year. About half this goes to the University of Canterbury Probably this flow money will decrease, if it has not already done so, with [unclear: budgetting] restraints now being applied in the U.S. [unclear: Defe] Department.
Dsir Research for U.S. Department of Defense
There are at least two example of the New Zealand Department of Scientific and industrial Research [unclear: perr]research and contract to U.S. military agencies, while other research is [unclear: app] of use to U.S. military agencies, although not paid for by them.
Information on the [unclear: sophere] collected by the [unclear: Dsir] Rarotonga, Scott Base and Godley Head ([unclear: Iction] has being [unclear: are] in research connected with the detection of nuclear explosion financed by the U.S. Defense Atomic Super Agency and by DOD Advanced Research Projects Agency. Data from the [unclear: DS ionosonde] at Campbell Island has been used in USAF office Aerospace Research contract( AF190604) 6180 concerned with auroral radio blackouts.
The DSIR Geophysical observatory, Christchurch, contribute page break [unclear: peomagnetic] data to a U.S. Army Electronics Command study of the world wide geomagnetic effects of the July 1962 high altitude nuclear explosion. Some of this data was obtained by using Post Office toll lines near Invercargill as a telluric array, with recording instruments loaned by the University of Alaska, which in turn was inanced by the USAF.
Much of New Zealand's research on aurora and airglow appears at he very least, to be of interest to the USAF, even if not actually directed or financed by that organisation. In this connection it is interesting to note a remark by the Prime Minister, 9 July 1968, in this statement on Mt John, "The Government therefore welcomes he establishment of the Baker Nunn station as a further example of he fruitful cooperation in scientific subjects between the U.S. and N.Z., which has already been amply demonstrated in such diverse fields as Antarctic research and auroral and cosmic ray studies." The full extent of this cooperation is not known, but the USAF has provided New Zealand with an all-sky camera for photographing aurora and a patrol spectrograph for analysing aurora, both instruments being used at Scott Base, Antarctica. The USAF Cambridge Research Laboratory has provided financial assistance for studies of lithium emissions at Hallett Base, Antarctica which are a side-effect of thermo-nuclear explosions.
A Checklist of U.S. Military Research Projects and Installations in New Zealand
a) University of Alaska Telluric Current Project. In 1962 the University of Alaska, under contract AF 19(604)6180 to the USAF Cambridge Research Laboratories, installed and operated a telluric current electrode array near Oamaru. Recordings were made from March 15 to July 31, a period which included a series of high altitude nuclear explosions at Johnston Island. Very low frequency receivers were also operated. The research was directed towards studying micropulsations and VLF phase variations as a method of detecting nuclear explosions, b) For most of 1967 an employee of International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation's Federal Laboratories-Aerospace was stationed at the Mt John Astronomical Observatory mapping a portion of the southern hemisphere sky to determine positions and intensities of infra-red stars. This is carried out on behalf of the Electronic Systems Division of the USAF Systems Command. The work is probably connected with development of methods of infra-red detection of missiles. c) Numerous oceanographic institutions have carried out U.S. Navy-financed research around New Zealand's shores. In 1968, for example, 5 research vessels from four institutions were active in the Tasman Sea alone. All this work is of direct military value, especially to the submarine fleet which needs a wide variety of information of wave motion, sea temperatures, salinity, sea bottom properties, and sea animal noises for the efficient functioning of sonar.
Submarine-Warfare and Anti-Submarine-Warfare Research
Apparently the only research carried out by the New Zealand Ministry of Defense itself is in the field of oceanography. This research is carried out by the Naval Research Laboratory based at Devonport An N.R.L release on its own activities reads as follows:-
"....Although many of the laboratory's activities are classified every effort is made to present as much as possible of the basic scientific data generated in the unclassified literature. In addition a close liaison is always maintained with other N.Z. research organisations involved in those aspects of marine research which concerns us (particularly the Oceanographic Institute and Geophysics Division of D.S.I.R.)
Most of the work the laboratory undertakes can be classed under the headings of 'Underwater acoustics' and 'Military oceanography'. Underwater acoustics include the development and design of new sonar systems and the study of those factors which reduce the effectiveness of existing ones.
Some of the N.R.L.'s activities are probably in violation of the Antarctic Treaty which amongst other things prohibits "any measures of a military nature". Oceanographic work carried out by N.R.L scientists in Antarctic water must surely be of a "military nature" or it would be left to the N.Z. Oceanographic Institute to carry out.
As noted in the above quotation Auckland University Physics Department does oceanographic work on behalf of the N.R.L. From 1968 onwards Auckland University teams have been studying the transmission of underwater sound in Antarctic water;, and recording sea noise, marine biological noises etc. beneath Antarctic sea ice. All this presumably is in contravention of the Antarctic Treaty.
It is interesting to speculate that the RNZN and Auckland University may be doing this Antarctic and other submarine warfare research at the request of the U S.N. The full extent of collaboration between the U S and N.Z. in these matters is not known. It has been claimed in Australia and denied in N.Z. that N.Z. is participating in the development of a new submarine detection system this development being code-named Project Nangana. This claim was first made by Christopher Forsyth:
"A $100.m [unclear: anti-sub] system called Project Nangana has been developed by Australian scientists.. Its installation around the Australian coast would change the R.A.N's primary role from antisubmarine to attach support for land based operations. The Federal government is to be asked to press ahead with Nangana this year. It is still in the research and development stage. H.Q. of the top-secret defence plan is at the Weapons Research Establishment, Salisbury, South Africa, which is a branch of the Department of Supply.
Brains and money from Australia, U.S., Britain and New Zealand combined to develop the product. It has involved government and private industry technologists in several fields, but most notably in micro electronics. The system is understood to be completely defensive, working in much the same way as a surface radar ... By giving advanced warning of underwater objects, such as submarines, Nangana will alert anti-submarines, ships and aircraft. The system is being guardedly talked about at the National Radio and Electronics Engineering Convention being held in Sydney under the auspices of the Institution of Radio and Electronic Engineering of Australia. . . . Industry reports said yesterday that once Nangana had been approved by the Federal Government they would gel between $35m and $60 over 5-6 years. Nangana is believed to have been tested by oceanographic ships from the R.A.N and the R.N.Z.N, R.N. ships have visited Australia specially for the task. It has been tested at great depths in the Tasman Sea."
The story was immediately taken up by New Zealand newspapers and comment was sought in Wellington. "Although official sources refuse comment on N.Z. participation in Australias Project Nangana it is understood that New Zealand scientists and Navy men have been working on the project for some time . . . Almost certainly there have been exchanges of information between Australia, N.Z. and Britain, and possibly the U.S. on this work .... Defence spokesman said in Wellington today that they could not comment on a project that had been mounted by the Australians. Asked in N.Z. taxpayers were entitled to know whether N.Z. Government funds were being used on the project they declined to comment."
A farther Australian report confirmed that Nangana did actually exist — "The Minister for Supply, Senator Henty yesterday confirmed that Australian scientists were working on the development of an improved submarine detection system. The project was on the early stages of research and technical evaluation." This report mentioned Royal Navy but not R.N.Z.N. participation.
Information released later by Australian defense officials revealed that Nangana was a system involving a network of unattended detection buoys which tape record data and relay it to shore stations, ships and aircraft. So far it has not yet been determined whether New Zealand has actually participated in Nangana. One U.S. submarine warfare project that New Zealand has participated in is Project Neptune, organised by the U.S. Naval Ordnance Laboratory in 1964. In this experiment a series of depth charges were dropped by ships and aircraft over wide ranges of ocean between Bermuda and Perth, Australia. Information collected by the project was intended to "help improve sonar and under-water communications systems by showing the Navy the best frequency and level of sound to us." The New Zealand N.R.L was invited to participate in this experiment and stationed the research vessel, Tui, off Milford Sound, from where detonations woe heard of bombs exploded as far away as 6,000 miles, near Capetown.
N.R.L responsibility for collecting data on behalf of the U.S.N. has probably increased greatly with the loan to N.Z. of the new research vessel, Tui, in July 1970. Part of the agreement for having the ship is that all information obtained by the R.N.Z.N. will be made available to the U.S.N. In April 1971 the Commander of U.S. antisubmarine warfare forces (Pacific) arrived in New Zealand to scrutinise the work of New Zealand's Orion antisubmarine aircraft and of the N.R.L.
U.S.N. Aerial Survey of New Zealand Coast
On 10/11/59 the Acting Prime Minister, Mr. Skinner, made the following announcement:
'A detachment of the U.S. Navy has arrived in New Zealand to join with the R.N.Z.A.F. in a project to produce aerial photographs of the New Zealand coastline for defence purposes. The detachment, which has brought with it its own specially equipped photographic aircraft and includes photographic experiments, will be stationed at Ohakea. The R.N.Z.A.F. will contribute additional aircraft while R.N.Z.A.F. photographers will work with the U.S. Navy on the project .... It is expected that the survey will take from 2½ to 4 months to complete depending on weather conditions. "The R.N.Z.A.F. will derive considerable benefit by way of training .... It is a good example of practical peacetime cooperation between New Zealand and her major ANZUS ally in meeting the long term defence needs of this country and the Pacific area."
No further explanation was made of why the U.S.N, needed air photos of the N.Z. coastline, nor why Lands and Survey Department photographs were not good enough. The project was the subject of a N.Z.U.S. agreement which stated that "such a survey is acceptable to the N.Z. Government on the following understandings. It is understood by the N.Z. Government that copies of the photographs taken by this detachment and of the descriptive material prepared from the photographs and other relevant data will be made freely available to appropriate authorities .. "Other arrangements were identical to the agreement for U.S.N. use of the Christchurch Airport base. There is no time limit on the agreement.
For at least a fortnight, one of the aircraft was based at Christchurch Airport. It was a North American Savage, an aircraft specially built for photographic work. The probable destination of the air photograph is the Pacific Science Information center in Hawaii, which is operated under contract to the U.S.N. by Bishop Museum and which amongst other things, maintains a file of air photographs for the Navy which is stated to include photographs of every island in the Pacific.
The Manhattan Project
This is surely one of the earliest examples of U.S.N.Z. secret research cooperation. According to an Otago University geologist, Dr. C.O. Hutton when the Manhattan project for the development of the atomic bomb was undertaken during the war, an appeal was made to all allied countries to search for supplies or radioactive minerals. The N.Z. Government sent a secret expedition under the leadership of Dr. Hutton to Fiordland in the hope that important discoveries would be made there .... The expedition failed to find any uranium.
The Canterbury Project
Radars operating during World War II were sometimes plagued by abnormal propagation conditions. Superconductivity ducts, caused by particular combination of humidity and temperature lapse rates in the atmosphere, would occasionally render radars incapable of covering all segments of the sky and thus protect enemy aircraft from detection. Conversely things below the radio horizon occasionally appeared on the scopes to add further confusion. In 1944 U.S. and U.K. officials decided to investigate the phenomenon and the Canterbury Rains were chosen because it was far removed from hostile territory and because the frequent 'Nor'westers' provided ideal steady conditions for examining ducts. The N.Z, Government undertook to initiate the program but hostilities ceased before anything was undertaken, and it was then decided to proceed with the project on a civilian basis. The U.K. provided staff, equipment and half the finance. New Zealand provided staff, finance and sea and air facilities. The U.S. provided meteorological sounding equipment. Headquarters was at Ashburton aerodrome while radar equipment was deployed at various points on the Canterbury plains, a trawler carried recording equipment off shore and R.N.Z.A.F. Ansons from Wigram investigated the duct itself.
Although U.S. participation was minimal and there appears to have been nothing secret in the project, it has given rise to rumours that "secret U.S. Air Force research" was being carried out at Ashburton Airport. Results have been published by the New Zealand D.S.I.R.
U.S. Coast Guard Survey of Antipodes
In March 1947 the ice breaker Eastwind was returning from Antarctica where it had been participating in the U.S.N's "Operation Highjump" when it passed through a fairly severe storm which caused slight damage to the vessel. The commanding officer of the vessel used this damage as an excuse to put into Antipodes bland without the knowledge or consent of the New Zealand Government The real purpose of the visit was to carry out a survey of the island's topography and resources, presumably to determine its suitability as a U.S. Naval base. The incident has gone publicly unrecorded except in the biography of the ships commanding officer who did not attempt to hide the underhand nature of the affair. "I radioed the admiral that we were putting into the Antipodes to repair some storm damage. I forget just what this damage was, but we required rationalisation of some kind to avoid international embarrassment." Shore parties from the vessel accomplished what sounds like quite a thorough survey.
"We organised our forces into parties. The first, led by Lieut.. I.G Russel would make a reconnaisance of the N.E. end of the island. Lieut. J.G Moore would take two boats on a hydrographic survey of the island. Our helicopter would accomplish such air scouting as the fog might permit . . ."
Biological Warfare Oriented Research
The U.S. Defence Department formerly had a number of projects operating in the South Pacific area collecting information on dispersal of disease by migratory birds, parasites, insects, winds etc. These projects were intended to evaluate the risks of biological ("germ") warfare agents being accidentally dispensed more widely than a future military commander might intend. Some the the field work was carried out in New Zealand and it dependencies.