Salient. Victoria University Student Newspaper. Volume. 34, Number 16. September 8th 1971
An account of the address of Kuo Mo-Jo, vice-chairman, Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China, to student delegations from New Zealand and the UK, August 1971. This account was prepared after the meeting.
As a lead-in he asks the UK students about their observations during their travel through USSR on their way to China, and agrees and adds to their comments about the repressive conditions there and the shortage of food. They comment on the way in which Mongolia has been turned into a virtual Soviet garrison. He comments that there are 8 Soviet divisions stationed inside Mongolia, and 1,000,000 Soviet troops along the Chinese border. The USSR has set up a special Asia command HQ near the border of the Mongolian autonomous region. The Chinese fear that the Russians will link up with India to form an aggressive cresent against China to the West. He says that in the USSR the troops are spreading the idea that they are going to attack first. But, as Mao says, the Chinese are afraid of nothing We are prepared. For example in Peking we have underground air-raid shelters and underground subways. In all major cities there are shelters and tunnels, so we are prepared for a surprise attack. But we will not attack unless we are attacked.
Despite the aggressive actions of the Soviets, we still carry on diplomatic relations with them, and have been negotiating since 10 October 1969 on the border question with no success. The supply of food in Russia is very bad. Cucumber and tomatoes are available there only on the black market. But we are continuing to trade with them. For example we have ordered from them a number of An-62 planes. In February 1965 Kosygin travelled to Vietnam, and on the way back he talked with Mao, and Mao said that it would take 10,000 years to solve the ideological differences. Kosygin suggested that 10,000 years may be a bit too long, so Mao said let's cut off a thousand years. Last year in talks with the Rumanians, the Rumanians suggested that a cut from the 9,000 years might be in order, and Mao said that he would cut it to 8,000 years, but that was his last offer. What all this means is that we will not bargain on matters of principle with the USSR - the USSR must return to the Marxist-Leninist line. The Soviet people have been sapped by the arms race with the US. In the 1960's the US and USSR spent similar amounts on nuclear weapons, missiles, and space research. $US564.9B spent by the US and $US470B spent by the USSR. This does not include USSR spending on the Navy which now sails the 5 oceans of the world. You can't eat and dress in nuclear bombs. The USSR owes many debts at home and abroad. Domestically it owes $US28.6B, abroad $US4.1B (1970 figures.) The US is better off, people say it is the richest notion in the world, but it has the biggest debt at home and abroad. [At home $US400B, abroad $US45B.] China has no debts at home or abroad.
China has not been rid of backwardness yet. Plenty of our houses are still in bad condition. But the variety of food is probably better than in the US or the USSR. We are following and will continue to follow the principles of frugality and diligence. There are 750 million Chinese, and we will continue to be frugal and diligent so as to support the struggles of the oppressed people and nations..
[Kuo Mo-Jo then commented on Nixon's current economic measures; he concluded: All these measures are like a bomb in the market of the "Free World," an eight-point earthquake. They prove the depth of the crisis. There is also a racial, political and military crisis at the same time.]
Nixon recently gave a speech about US foreign policy. He said the power structure of world politics was like a five-pointed star. The first four points were the US, the USSR, the EEC, and Japan (whose steel output will soon surpass that of the US.) It looks like the more US dollars you have the more trouble you have. It is like the Aesop fable of the peasant who takes the snake into his breast to warm it and it bites him. (This applies to Germany.) The last country that Nixon mentioned was China. We don't want to be a super-power - ever. To be a superpower is to ride roughshod over small and medium sized nations. We identify with small and medium sized nations.
I mentioned Nixon because he never seems willing to admit the gravity of the crisis. The US is declining like the Roman empire. Why does Nixon want to visit China. The US has blockaded China for 20 years. They make propaganda against China. But now the red devil has suddenly become the red maiden. When Nixon stood for president he made two promises. First that he would end the Vietnam war, and second that he would normalise relations between China and the US. He has withdrawn some troops from Vietnam - but we can't tell when the rest will come out. During the last 2 years he has spread ideas of normalisation of relations with China. He has expressed this desire repeatedly through many channels. We have observed him for 2 years to see whether he is sincere or just paying lip service - Mao says we will welcome him, not quarrel with him, but we will criticise. An example of his expression of sincerity is the fact that as soon as the ping pong delegation returned to the US he received the head of it. On every possible occasion he has expressed the wish to come to China. He says his daughters should honeymoon in China they won't honeymoon at Tachai. His whole family is welcome. Kissinger came to Peking. He expressed a formal wish to have summit talks and to work for normalisation of relations and exchange of opinions. When and whether he will come we cannot foretell.
The talks will have 2 goals. (1) Normalisation of relations. The history of talks with the US dates far back, starting on 1-8-55 in Geneva, and later transfered to Warsaw, at ambassadorial level. They have taken place 136 times to no avail. The problem of Taiwan is the main problem and cause of abnormal relations. The PRC should be recognised as the sole legal govt. Taiwan is a province and inalienable part of the liberation of that province is an internal problem. We oppose the Taiwan independence movement which is manipulated by the US and the Japanese. We do not recognise the illegal past between Chiang Kai Shek and the US. All US forces and assistance should be withdrawn.
On the question of the UN, the PRC should be restored and the KMT driven out. There is no other choice. These were the problems of the 136 talks, and will be brought up.
We have many common problems, but the main one is Indo-China. We support the 7 point proposal of Madame Binh in Paris. The US must withdraw all troops and set a timetable. The US should not interfere with the internal affairs of Vietnam. Vietnamese problems should be settled by the Vietnamese people themselves. We will give help outside the Paris talks. We will support to the end the Vietnamese and Indochinese Peoples' stuggles. It would be treason not to support the Vietnamese People is what Mao has said. The Chinese people will spare no sacrifice to support them. We will not just pay lip service, we will not supply only biscuits.
The problem of Indochina will be solved bilaterally between the Vietnamese comrades and the US, between the Laotion cmrades and the US, and between our Cambodian friends and the US. We do not recommend the reconvention of the Geneva conference.
Thre is also the matter of Korea where there is only an armistice, but no agreement. The Chinese volunteers have withdrawn, but of the UN forces only U.S. troops (40,000) remain. The US has brought arms into Korea and moulded collaboration between Japan and Korea. When the US withdraws Japanese forces will replace them.
We will also discuss the problem of revived Japanese militarism. For example their self defence force has 300,000 men, and 200,000 officers. Hitler had the same kind of proportions in his army when he was reviving it. When they wish to mobilise they can immediately have a very big army - perhaps 3 million. This is a very big question in Asia.
All US troops should be withdrawn, all bases dismantled, - but the USSR should do the same in Mongolia. The Nixon doctrine says Asians should fight Asians. We Chinese say Chinese should look after their problems, Korieans, after Korea, the Vietnamese after Vietnam etc.
In the time until next May we cannot tell how the situation will change. Some people are worried that China might change. We will never bargain on principle. Imperialism represented by Nixon will never change: Marxism Leninism will never change we will not be infected by capitalism. But Nixon thinks we bring the red germ to the US, so he fears us.
Nixon says his negotiations will not be at the expense of old friends, nor will they be directed against other countries. Those words are said for Soviet ears. The US are acting according to what he said. On 2 August Rogers advocated his China plot for 2 chinas. On 20 August Bush at the UN also put forward the 2 China policy. On 20 August the foreign Ministry of the PRC issued a statement saying that China will have nothing to do with a UN with Taiwan in it. We are waiting to see what will happen in the September session of the UN. But we can wait we haven't been in the UN for 21 years and we are well clothed and fed.