A Leaf from the Natural History of New Zealand
Nat. Ord. Filices.
Korau, Pitau, Mamaku, Cyathea medullus; this is the most beautiful of the New Zealand arborescent ferns; its long, graceful leaves and jet black stalks, with its tender fronds, curled so as to form no inapt resemblance of a crozier, are sure to arrest the traveller's attention in the forest; the entire stem being peeled is eaten, and when cooked in the hangi, (Mamaku) is very good; one tree will dine a large party; it is a favorite dish of the natives; it is also worthy of notice that the pith of the cooked Mamaku, when dried in the sun, forms no bad substitute for sago.
Rarauhe, Pteris esculenta; this is the common fern, the root of which (Aruhe or Roi) is eaten; when well beaten, roasted, and deprived of its fibres, it is good eating; the proper time for digging it, is the early part of November, when it is stacked (Titara) and carefully protected from the page 99 weather, but the wind is allowed to blow through it; the fern root is still prized as food, especially by the sick and those who travel by sea, being a great preventive of sea-sickness; there are particular spots where they dig it, and the part which is selected is the deepest in the earth.
Uwipara, Paratawiti; a very rare fern growing in the densest parts of the forest, having a very long and slender leaf; the root is scaly, like that of the white lily, each scale being of a considerable size; these are roasted and considered a great delicacy.
Nat. Ord. Fungi.
Harori; the New Zealand forests abound with them, and many are edible; of such are the following:—the Hakekakeka, which has a brown leathery appearance; the Hawai, which is the same as the Roupou; the Aaroritui, which is a large white fungus; the Wairuru, and the Powata.
Parekoko, Panako, Tubar cibarium; this truffle nearly resembles the European; it is abundant, but difficult to discover; the natives esteem it as an article of food; there are several varieties of it.
Nat. Ord. Algae.
Rimu, Chondrus Chrispus; this sea weed is generally used by the natives, being boiled with the juice of the Tutu, which it converts into a jelly; it possesses all the properties of the Carrigeen moss, and will, doubtless, before long be as highly prized by the Europeans as it is by the natives.
Most of the Algae of the New Zealand shores are edible and still occasionally used as food.
The following Table Will Assist in Shewing the Close Connexion Between the Natives of New Zealand and the Polynesian Race in General:—
Atua, general name for the Diety [sic: Deity] in almost all the islands; teu, Aleutian isles.page 100
Aitua, satisfaction of the spirit, an evil omen; Aitua, Spirit, Samoan, Rorotonga; Maitu, Pau.
Aka, creeping plant, a liand; Tonga, Rarotonga, Mangarewa, Nukahiva.
Akaaka, root of a potatoe; Samoa, Tahaiti, Hawaii, Vitia, Tarawa.
Hue, general name for the pumpkin or melon, or creeping vines; Fue, Pohue, convolvus; Fue Fue, wild vine, Sam.; Hue, Nuk., Haw.; Pohuehue, do.; Pohue, Tah.; the gourd convol., Braziliensis.
Huhu, moth; Uu, Rar., Nuk., an insect of the beetle kind.
Hutu, a tree; Phillocladus Trichamanoides, Tah. and Nuk., the Barringtonia speciosa; Ifi, Sam. Ton.; ihi, Nuk. a species of chesnut.
Ipu, calabash, cup; Sam., Tong., Nuk., Tah., Mang., Haw.
Iro, maggot. Ilo, Haw.; Vio, Tah.; Io, Nuk.
Kaho, and Kakaho, reed, a rush; Kaho, Tong.; Kakaho, Tong.; Kakao, Mang.; Aeho, Tah.; Ahuawa, Haw.
Kakau, handle of a tool, the stalk or stem of a plant, Nuk.; Kau, Tang.; Au, Sam., Haw.
Kawakawa; evidently used when the natives first arrived as Cava; the memory of the custom is preserved in the names of places where they used to meet for drinking it, as Kawaranga, in the Thames.
Kete, basket; Rar., Mang.; Ete, Sam., Haw.; Kete in the Tong. and Vit., is the stomach or belly.
Kiri, skin, Rar.; Kili, Fakaafa, Tong.; Iri, Tah.; Ili, Haw.; Kii, Nuk.; a skin, bark, rind; also a rasp, file, originally of the Shark's skin.
Kiore, rat, Mang.; Kiole, Pau.; Iole, Sam., Haw.
Kirikiri, gravel, pebbles, Tar.; Kilikili, Iliili, Sam., Haw.
Ko, native spade, Nuk.; O, Tah., Haw.
Kuku, muscle, shell fish, Tong.; ùù, Sam., Haw.
Kuku, pigeon; Nuk., a green dove.
Kukupa, pigeon, Pau.; Uupa, Tah.
Kumara, sweet potatoe, Batata; Kumara, Mang.; Kumaa, or, Kumawa, Nuk.; Umara, Tah.; Uala, Haw.
Kumete, Umete, Ubique, wooden bowl.page 101
Kupenga, Upenga, Upena, Upea, Ubique, sieve.
Kuri, dog, Rar., Mang.; Kuli, Tong.; Uli, Sam.; Uri, Tah.
Mai, pine tree; Mai, Mea, Tong., Mang., Nuk., Tar.; Maiore, Tah., Mang., Pau.; Aeiore, Haw.; breadfruit tree.
Mahana, warm; Tah., the sun, a day.
Marae; properly the court before the Tohunga's house; it applied to any open space in a pa; in Tahaiti it is a sacred enclosure.
Miro, Podocarpus ferrugenea, Tah.; Mo, Nuk.; a tree, Thespicia populneae.
Moa, New Zealand, large extinct bird; Ubique, the common fowl.
Paraua, sperm whale; Palaoa, Haw.; Paaoa, Nuk.; Mang., same as New Zealand.
Poepoe, ball used in play; a round thing; Fae, Tong., Haw., Rar.; Poe, Tah., Rar., Mang., a pearl.
Pona, knot, Sam., Rar., Nuk., Haw., the parts of a sugar cane between the joints.
Ponapona, joint; Pona, Nuk.
Pungawerewere, spider; Punavelevele, Haw.; Punaveevee, Nuk.
Rae, Lae, Ae, Ubique, forehead.
Rata, tree; Lata, Tah., Tuscarpus edulis; Lata, Tong., a tree, Metrosideros robusta.
Rau, a leaf, Rar., Mang., Pau.; Lau, La, Sam.; Lau, Lou, Tong.; Lau, Hau.; Au, Ou, Nuk.; Ndrau, Ndra, Vit.; a leaf, foliage raurau, Tah.
Romi, Roromi, to rub, press, or squeeze; Lomi, Lolomi, Omi, to shampoo.
Rongomai, a New Zealand god; Tahaiti, Te Rongo.
Roro, brain; Oo, Nuk., the core of the breadfruit; Lolo, Sam., the kernel of the old cocoanut; Lolololo, fat; Lolo, Tong., oil, oily, Haw.
Rororoi, kind of pudding formed of mashed kumara or potatoe; Loloi, Tong.; Tutolo, Haw.; Turoro, Mang., a pudding in which cocoanut oil is an ingredient.
Ruru, owl; Lulu, Sam., Tong., Vit.
Tangaroa; one of the most ancient of the New Zealand gods; Taaroa, in Tahaiti, is regarded as the Creator.page 102
Taro, arum; Talo, Tao, Ubique.
Ti, throughout the islands, name of a tree in New Zealand, Dracaena Australis.
Tohora, black whale, Tah., Haw.; Tafola, Sam., Fak.; Tafoa, Tong.
Tupapaku, dead body; Tupapau, Tah.
Uri, fruit of the kiekie; Kulu, Niua, Kuru, Rar.; Paiuru, Tah.; Ulu, Haw., the breadfruit.
Wata, stand, or raised platform for food; Fata, Tah.
Wau, paper mulberry; a tree said by the natives to have been originally brought with them; from its inner bark, they formerly made a kind of cloth, used by females as a cincture for the hair; Fau, Sam., Tong., Nuk., the hibiscus liliaceus, a tree from whose bark the natives make twine; Vau, Vit.; the hibiscus; the cincture worn by women is made from its bark; Fau, Fak.; Pau, Haw.
Wiwi, rush; Wi, Tafifi, Tah.; Tau, Rar.; Tahihi, Haw.; Tawiwi, to ensnare, entangle, to be entangled in the rushes.