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Keys and Bibliography to the Collembola

Super-Family Mydonioidea Salmon, 1945

Super-Family Mydonioidea Salmon, 1945

Family Palpigeridae Olfers, 1907 (Fossil Collembola)

Key to the Genera of the Palpigeridae
1. Ants. I—III annulated; Abd. IV longer than Abd. III; body elongate, cylindrical Palpigerina. Olfers, 1907 (805)
Antennae not annulated 2
2. Abd. IV longer than Abd. III; Ant II with sharp, apical spine Palpiger Olfers, 1907 (805)
Abdominal segments approximately equal and swollen, being wider than the thorax Palpigerida Olfers, 1907 (805)

Family Catastylidae Olfers, 1907

Key to the Genera of the Catastylidae (Fossil Collembola)
1. Scales present; Ants. III and IV annulated Cuculliger Olfers, 1907 (805)
Scales absent 2
2. Abd. IV with two spines and Abd. V with two long cerci Catastylus Olfers, 1907 (805)
Abd. V with either a spine or long setae 3
3. Abd. V with two long cerci bearing basal papillae, and one long median upturned spine Polystylus Olfers, 1907 (805)
Abd. V on posterior border and Abd. VI on each side with a short papilla bearing a long seta Omophora Olfers, 1907 (805)

Family * Oncopoduridae Denis, 1934

Key to the Genera of the Oncopoduridae
1. Ocelli and pigment present; mucro with two basal ciliated setae Harlomillsia Bonet 1944 (125)
=Millsia Bonet, 1943 (124) (not of Womersley)
Ocelli and pigment absent 2
2. Mucro with two basal scales and ventral lamellae; dens with a single spine on outer edge Oncopodura Carl et Leb, 1905 (206)
=Cyphoderellopsis Yosii, 1939 (1194)
Mucro without scales or lamellae; dens apically with two scales extending sometimes beyond apex of mucro Borecus Folsom, 1923 (461)

* The Oncopoduridae were first recognized as a distinct family by Denis in 1934, but later workers continued to refer to it as a sub-family either of the Cyphoderidae or the Isotomidae, and much confusion has resulted. Bonet in 1943, has discussed the situation at some length and produced convincing evidence to support Denis's view, with which I concur, that the Oncopoduridae is a family.

Family Isotomidae Schaeffer, 1896

Sub-Family Anurophorinae Börner, 1901

This name is reverted to here pending the decision of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature regarding the retention on the official list of the genus Anurophorus Nicolet.

Key to the Genera of the Anurophorinae
1. Anal spines present on Abds. V–VI 2
Anal spines absent 4page 18
2. Anal spines on Abd. V, 15–30, arranged as a crown; dens and mucro fused Proctostephanus Börner, 1902 (142)
Anal spines on Abd. VI; furcula present or absent; ocelli, eight to each side 3
3. Anal spines, two, small; unguiculus absent; furcula absent Uzelia Absolon, 1901 (13)
=Pentapleotoma Börner, 1903 (144)
Protanurophorus Womersley, 1925 (1150)
Anal spines, four, large; unguiculus present; furcula present or absent Tetracanthella Schött, 1891 (951)
=Lubbockia Haller, 1880 (524)
Deuterolubbockia Dalla Torre, 1895 (280)
4. Furcula present, sometimes partially reduced 5
Furcula absent or sometimes represented by a papilla 12
5. Abdominal segments distinctly separated and visible from above 6
Abds. IV–VI fused or VI more or less concealed beneath Abd. V 11
6. Ocelli present, but reduced in number 7
Ocelli absent; furcula reaching to middle of Abd. III only; mucro and dens indistinctly separated; claw with tunica Womersleyella Salmon, 1944 (917)
7. Body extremely elongate or posteriorly flexed downwards 8
Body not so; more normal; ocelli, six to each side 9
8. All Abdominal segments sub-equal; ocelli, one, two, or five to each side; unguiculus simple Folsomides Stach, 1922 (1004)
Abds. V and VI bent downwards; ocelli, five or eight to each side Subisotoma Stach, 1947 (1027)
9. Unguiculus normal, simple 10
Unguiculus three winged; dens with 4–5 transverse posterior folds Jacksoniella Denis, 1931 (368)
10. Furcula well developed; integument very granular Astephanus Denis, 1927 (360)
Furcula reduced; mucro hook-like; integument reticulate Coloburella Latzel, 1917 (665)
11. Abd. VI concealed beneath Abd. V Cryptopygus Willem, 1902 (1138)
Abds. IV—VI fused; anus ventral; ocelli absent; body extremely elongate; furcula short, not reaching to Abd. III Isotomodes Axelson, 1907 (60)
12. Furcula represented by a papilla 13
Furcula absent 14
13. Cuticle with honeycombed appearance; clavate tenent hairs absent from foot Paranurophorus Denis, 1929 (363)
Cuticle very granulate; clavate tenent hairs present on foot; papilla of furcula with two short ridges Boernerella Denis, 1925 (351)
14. Anal papillae present; body elongate; ocelli reduced Pseudanurophorus Stach, 1922 (1004)
Anal papillae absent; body normal; ocelli normal Anurophorus Nicolet, 1841 (797)
=Adicranus Bourlet, 1843 (160)
Bourletia MacGillivray, 1893 (724)
Sub-Family Proisotominae Stach, 1947
Key to the Genera of the Proisotominae
1. Abds. V–VI or IV–VI fused, forming a single mass 2
All abdominal segments distinctly separated or segments V and VI partly fused, with a trace of dorsal suture still visible 7page 19
2. Abds. V–VI fused; body setae arranged as transverse bands around posterior margins of thoracic and first four abdominal segments Parafolsomia Salmon, 1949 (925)
Abds. IV–VI fused; postantennal organ present, elliptical 3
3. Mucro dentate 4
Mucro falciform 6
4. With eight ocelli to each side * Bagnallella nov.
With fewer than eight ocelli to each side 5
5. With 2–5 ocelli to each side Folsomidiella Bagnall, 1949 (88)
Ocelli absent; postantennal organ long, elliptical, and usually narrow * Folsomia Willem, 1902 (1141)
=* Litsteria Bagnall, 1949 (88)
6. Ocelli present, reduced in number; postantennal organ present; Ant IV without sense clubs Arlea Womersley, 1939 (1181)
Ocelli absent; postantennal organ absent; Ant. IV with 5–6 large sense clubs and two broad sense lobes Folsomia Denis, 1931 (368)
=Denisia Folsom, 1932 (466)
7. Body form normal, without bulging segments or deep intersegmental constrictions 8
Body with the segments bulging and deep intersegmental constrictions; unguiculus three-winged; ocelli, eight to each side. Guthriella Börner, 1906 (147)
8. Dens normal without terminal expansions 9
Dens with, a large terminal bladder-like lateral lobe on outer edge; ocelli, eight to each side; Abds. V–VI fused with dorsal suture Appendisotoma Stach, 1947 (1027)
9. Bothriotrichia present on abdominal segments 10
Bothriotrichia absent 11
10. With one pair dorsal bothriotrichia on Abd. IV; hind femur normal; mucro with apical, sub-apical, and proximal teeth and four lamellae Hydroisotoma Stach, 1947 (1027)
With two pairs dorsal bothriotrichia on Abds. V–VT; hind femur with large spine-like process; mucro with three teeth in which one is apical and the others form a pair side by side near base Archisotoma Linnaniemi, 1912 (690)
11. Dentes shorter than manubrium, usually granulate, coarsely tuberculate, crenulate, or notched; mucro with 2–4 teeth and with or without lamellae; Abds. V–VI separate or partly fused; ocelli, eight to each side Proisotoma Börner, 1901 (140)
Dentes longer than manubrium, usually smooth, but heavily clothed with setae; mucro long, bidentate, with broad lamellae; Abds. V–VI separated Ballistrura Börner, 1906 (147)
Sub-Family Isotominae Schaeffer, 1896

* Bagnall has proposed a genus Litsteria for those species previously included in Folsomia but in which the eyes are reduced to two, one, or none to each side. Folsomia, however, has for its genotype F. fimetaria, which has no ocelli. Bagnall's name Litsteria fails therefore, as a synonym. He has also proposed the genus Folsomidiella for those Folsomia species with five ocelli to each side. This is in order, but I propose that the definition of Folsomidiella be enlarged to include those species with 1–5 ocelli to each side and that a new genus Bagnallella be erected to include those species with eight ocelli to each side previously included in the genus Folsomia. The genotype of Bagnallella will be B. (F.) sedecimoculata Salmon (944).

* Stach (1055) criticises this genus and suggests that the species P. fuscus and P. parvus belong to Vertagopus and P. dissimilis to Tomocerura, basing this opinion on the structures of the feet and furcula. He apparently ignores the extraordinary integumentary feature of the papillate setae. I cannot accept his view, as I consider the papillate setae a most striking character of generic importance. Recently (953) I have described three more species belonging to the genus from the Antarctic.

Key to the Genera of the Isotominae
1. Fine wavy sensory ciliated hairs (lasiotrichia) on abdominal segments 2
Without lasiotrichia 8
2. Dentes with either simple or serrated spines 3
Dentes without spines 5page 20
3. Dental spines serrated 4
Dental spines simple, but each spine arising from a papilla Proisotomurus Womersley, 1934 (1169)
4. Ant. III and Ant IV annulated; tibiotarsi broad and flattened Tibiolatra Salmon, 1941 (910)
Antennae not annulated; tibiotarsi normal Acanthomurus Womersley, 1934 (1169)
5. Body of peculiar form; Ant III and Ant IV annulated; ocelli reduced, six to each side; mucro with three teeth Architomocerura Denis, 1931 (369)
Body normal in form; ocelli, eight to each side; antennae not annulated 6
6. Sense organ Ant. III normal, with not more than 2–3 sense rods 7
Sense organ Ant III with two blunt sense rods and 15–20 short truncated sensory hairs Axelsonia Börner, 1906 (147)
=Moniezina Denis, 1922 (343)
7. Mucro quadridentate Isotomurus Börner, 1903 (144)
Mucro falciform Falcisotomina Stach, 1947 (1027)
8. Claw with basal tunica 9
Claw without basal tunica 10
9. Dens with long terminal seta over-reaching mucro; mucro tridentate with lamellae; clavate tenent hairs absent Agrenia Börner, 1906 (147)
Dens without terminal seta; mucro quadridentate without lamellae; broadly spathulate tenent hairs present Pteronychella Börner, 1909 (150)
10. Flexed setae on thoracic and abdominal segments; postantennal organ present or absent 11
Without flexed setae; postantennal organ present or absent 12
11. Mucro bidentate; Abd. IV not much longer than Abd. III; foot without clavate tenent hairs Corynothryx Tullberg, 1876 (1075)
Mucro falciform; Abd. IV three times longer than Abd. III; clavate tenent hairs present on foot Isotobrya Womersley, 1934 (1169)
12. Setae of the body and appendages each arising from a distinct wart or papilla * Papillomurus Salmon, 1941 (910)
Setae not arising from warts or papillae 13
13. Body of normal form without swellings or processes 14
Body with abnormal spine-like or papillate processes or clusters of setae 32
14. Manubrium with spines 15
Manubrium without spines 16
15. Manubrium and dens both with spines; mucro tridentate; setae simple, ciliated, and serrated; postantennal organ present elongate, elliptical Sorensia Salmon, 1949 (925)
Manubrium only with a terminal group of seven spines on posterior aspect; mucro tridentate Acanthisotoma Bonet, 1942 (123)
16. Dens spined, the spines all simple 17
Dens without spines 21
17. Spines of dens each arising from a wart or papilla 18
Spines of dens without warts or papillae 19page 21
18. Spines of dens all slender and up to four rows; clavate tenent hairs present Procerura Salmon, 1941 (910)
Spines of dens of two kinds; two rows of slender spines and up to three rows of short stout spines; clavate tenent hairs absent Spinocerura Salmon, 1941 (910)
19. Mucro dentate with four teeth 20
Mucro falciform; clothing of long pubescent setae Millsia Womersley, 1942 (1184)
20. Clothing of simple setae; postantennal organ present Setocerura Salmon, 1949 (925)
Clothing of ciliated setae; postantennal organ absent Tomocerura Wahlgren, 1900 (1105)
21. Abd. IV bearing excessively long setae Alloschaefferia Börner, 1903 (144)
Abd. IV with normal setae 22
22. Abd. IV equal to or shorter than Abd. III 23
Abd. IV longer than Abd. III 27
23. Tenent hairs present on each foot 24
Tenent hairs absent 25
24. Abds. V and VI fused; furcula reaching ventral tube; mucro with three teeth Pseudisotoma Handschin, 1924 (530)
Abds. V and VI not fused; furcula reaching only posterior margin of Abd. II; mucro with four teeth Vertagopus Börner, 1906 (147)
25. Furcula reaching forward to ventral tube; Abds. V and VI not fused 26
Furcula reaching only posterior margin of Abd. II; some setae strongly serrated; Abds. V–VI fused Isotomedia Salmon, 1944 (917)
26. Setae of the body simple Isotoma Bourlet, 1839 (159)
=Podura Müller, 1776 (789)
Desoria Nicolet, Agassiz, 1841 (797) (24)
Apoeona Gistl, 1848 (510)
Setae of the body serrated Euisotoma Börner, 1901 (140)
27. Abd. V. and Abd. VI fused 28
Abd V and VI not fused 29
28. Ocelli, eight to each side; postantennal organ elongate elliptical, with a constriction at its middle Isotomina Börner, 1903 (144)
Ocelli reduced, six or fewer to each side; postantennal organ present, elliptical and sometimes constricted at middle Proisotomina Salmon, 1948 (921)
29. Ocelli, eight to each side; postantennal organ with thickened, flap-like, divided margins; mucro tridentate; tenent hairs absent Heteroisotoma Stach, 1947 (1027)
Ocelli reduced; postantennal organ without thickened margins or absent 30
30. Ocelli, six or fewer to each side; postantennal organ present Parisotoma Bagnall, 1940 (84)
Ocelli absent 31
31. Postantennal organ present Isotominella Delamare-Deboutteville, 1948 (332)
Postantennal organ absent Isotomiella Bagnall, 1940 (84)
32. Body of male with terminal abdominal spines or horn-like structures on head 33
Ant. II in male with cluster of short, thick, ciliated setae; Abd. III, at centre, with cluster of moderately long, curved, ciliated setae; tenent hairs absent; mucro bidentate; body with numerous stout, blunt, ciliated bristles Australotomurus Stach, 1947 (1027)page 22
33. Abd. V, in the male, dorsally with 4–6 stout spines; clavate tenent hairs absent; Abds. V and VI not fused; mucro with two or four teeth Spinisotoma Stach, 1926 (1009)
Males with long curved horns on top of head; antennae thickened; clavate tenent hairs present; Abds. V–VI fused; mucro with three teeth Rhodanella Salmon, 1945 (918)
=Rhodesia Womersley, 1934 (1169)

Family Tomoceridae Schaeffer, 1896

Sub-Family Lepidophorellinae Börner, 1906

This sub-family contains two tribes, the Lepidophorellini Womersley and the Neophorellini Womersley, of which the latter contains one genus only, Neophorella Womersley, 1934 (1168). The Lepidophorellini and Neophorellini are separated as in the key to the families, sub-families, and tribes of the Collembola given in the early part of this work.

Tribe Lepidophorellini Womersley, 1934
Key to the Genera of the Lepidophorellini
1. Tergum of the mesothorax at least three times as long as the metathorax and projecting forward over the head for a considerable distance Pseudolepidophorella Salmon, 1941 (910)
Tergum of the mesothorax shorter, not or only slightly overlying rear of head 2
2. Antennae normal, four segmented; unguiculus generally lanceolate, normal; scales normal Lepidophorella Schaeffer, 1897 (934)
=Dreponura Moniez, 1894 (782)
Antennae abnormal, apparently three segmented; empodial appendage peculiar, four-winged, with prominent teeth; scales hyaline Antennacyrtus Salmon, 1941 (910)
Sub-family Tomocerinae Börner, 1906

This sub-family contains three tribes—Tomocerini Salmon, Novacerini Salmon, and Paratomocerini Salmon—separated as in the key to the families of Collembola in the early part of this work. The tribe Paratomocerini, originally erected as a sub-family, contains only one genus Paratomocerus Tarsia in Curia, 1938 (1051). Likewise the Novacerini contains only the one genus, Novacerus Salmon, 1942 (911) =Neocerus Salmon, 1941 (910).

Tribe Tomocerini Salmon, 1941
Key to the Genera of the Tomocerini
1. Ocelli present, six to each side; clavate tenent hairs present 2
Ocelli absent; tenent hairs absent Tritomurns Frauenfeld, 1854 (476)
2. Head of maxilla without a beard Tomocerus Nicolet, 1841 (798)
=Macrotoma Bourlet, 1839 (159)
Head of maxilla with a beard Sub-genus Pogonognathellus Paclt, 1947 (828)
=Pogonognathus Börner, 1908 (159)

Family Protentomobryidae Folsom, 1937 (Fossil Collembola)

This family contains two genera, separated as follows:—

1. Body with large dorsal horn-like structure arising dorsally on the mesothorax and projecting posteriorly over the metathorax Stylonotus Olfers, 1907 (805)
Body without such structure; Abd. VI with suranal and subanal valves Protentomobrya Folsom, 1937 (468)
page 23

Family Mydoniidae Salmon, 1945

Sub-Family Mydoniimae Salmon, 1945
Tribe Mydoniini nov.nom.

* As the name Coelura was used by Warren in the Lepidoptera prior to its usage by Schott in the Collembola, I propose the new name Metacoelura in its place.

* When erecting this genus in 1871, Lubbock definitely stated that the name was derived from the Greek Œipà (Seira), meaning a chain. The spelling Sira adopted by many authors is. therefore, not only gramatically incorrect, but also contrary to the rules of nomenclature and should be dropped. The name Sira is also preoccupied, having been used in 1838 for a genus of birds and again in 1855 for a genus in the Mollusca.

Key to the Genera of the Mydoniini
1. Scales entirely absent from the body 2
Scales present on the body 10
2. Body normal; furcula reaching forward to thorax; mucro distinct from dens 3
Body abnormal, strongly convex; antennae longer than body; furcula reaching forward to head; mucro not distinctly separated from dens, simple, with horn-like apex * Metacoelura nov. nom.
=Coelura Schött, 1917 (962)
3. Ocelli, eight to each side 5
Ocelli reduced or absent; claw with basal wing-like teeth 4
4. Tibiotarsi on their inner surfaces with two rows of plain setae; clavate tenent hairs, if present, then only weakly developed Sinella Brook, 1882 (170)
Tibiotarsi of first and second legs without plain setae; tibiotarsus of third leg with one plain setae opposite the tenent hair; clavate tenent hairs present Parasinella Bonet, 1934 (121)
5. Claw with wing-like basal teeth; tibiotarsus on inner surface, with at least one row of plain setae; tenent hairs present, but weak Deuterosinella Salmon, 1943 (914)
Claw with wing-like basal teeth; tenent hairs well developed 6
6. Mucro dentate 7
Macro falciform Drepanura Schött, 1891 (950)
7. Dens with spines 8
Dens without spines 9
8. Spines of dens simple Homidia Börner, 1906 (147)
Spines of dens serrated or ciliated, or both, and each arising from a distinct wart or papilla; setae of body of peculiar form and each arising from a wart or papilla Mesentotoma Salmon, 1942 (913)
9. Claw always with two large, generally elongate, external lateral basal teem in addition to normal external teeth Mydonius Gistl, 1838 (510)
=Entomobrya Rondani, 1861 (904)
Chorutes Burmeister, 1838 (198) [in part]
Isotoma Bourlet, 1839 (159) [in part]
Degeeria Nicolet, 1841 (798) [in part]
Claw always without large external lateral basal teeth, but usually with normal external lateral teeth Pseudentomobrya Salmon, 1941 (910)
10. Dens with spines 11
Dens without spines, but with or without scales 13
11. Claw with basal wing-like tooth; mucro sub-apical to dens and falciform Metasinella Denis, 1929 (363)
=Sulcuncus Mills, 1938 (767)
Claw without basal wing-like tooth; mucro at apex of dens 12
12. With a single row of dental spines Acanthurella Börner, 1906 (147)
With multiple rows of dental spines Acanthocyrtus Handschin, 1925 (533)page 24
13. Body scales apically either rounded or obtusely pointed; dens with scales 16
Body scales apically acutely pointed and with few striations; dens without scales 14
14. Mesonotum projecting forward and overlapping rear of head; Abd. VI with finger-like process Epimetrura Schött, 1925 (965)
Mesonotum not overlapping head; Abd. VI without finger-like process 15
15. Mucro bidentate with basal Spine Willowsia Shoebotham, 1917 (986)
Mucro falciform Drepanosira Bonet, 1942 (123)
=Parasira Bonet, 1930 (116)
16. Ant. III and Ant. IV or only Ant. IV annulated 17
Antennae not annulated 23
17. Mucro dentate 18
Mucro falciform 22
18. Mesonotum projecting forward and considerably overlapping head, about four times as long as metanotum 19
Mesonotum projecting forward, but not or only slightly overlapping head 20
19. Ocelli, eight to each side Lepidocyrtoides Schött, 1917 (962)
Ocelli reduced, six to each side Calistella Reuter, 1893 (Schött) (953)
20. Abdominal lasiotrichia present 21
Without abdominal lasiotrichia Mesira Scherbakov, 1898 (938)
21. Ocelli, eight to each side; mesonotum slightly overlapping head; dens without spines Promesira Womersley, 1942 (1184)
Ocelli absent; mesonotum not overlapping head; dens with spines Troglosinella Delamare-Deboutteville, 1949 (335)
22. Ant. II normal, without specialized sense organ of large setae Lepidocyrtinus Börner, 1903 (144)
Ant II with specialized sense organ consisting of a circle of long stout ciliated setae Lepidoregia Delamare-Deboutteville, 1948 (332)
23. Claw with basal wing-like teeth 24
Claw without basal wing-like teeth 28
24. Unguiculus as well as claw with wing-like teeth 25
Claw only with wing-like teem 26
25. Mucro dentate Protosirodes Börner, 1901 (136)
Mucro falciform with basal spine; Ant. II with spine-like process Lepidosinella Handschin, 1920 (528)
26. With a single wing-like tooth to claw 27
With two wing-like basal teeth to claw; mucro dentate with basal spine Pseudosinella Schaeffer, 1897 (934)
=Tullbergia Lie Pettersen, 1896 (683)
Pettersenia Scherbakov, 1898 (938)
Mesosirodes Börner, 1901 (136)
27. Mucro dentate Sirodes Schaeffer, 1900 (937)
Mucro falciform with basal spine Sinelloides Bonet, 1942 (123)
=Propesinella Salmon, 1945 (918)
Parasinella Carpenter, 1935 (241)
Pseudosinella Schaeffer, 1897 (934) [in part]
28. Scales chitinized, coloured, striations clearly visible; Ant. IV with apical exsertile knob 29
Scales hyaline; striations, if present scarcely visible; Ant. IV without apical exsertile knob 32
29. Mucro dentate 30
Mucro falciform * Seira Lubbock, 1870 (708)
=Sira Tullberg, 1872 (1074)
Pseudosira Schött, 1893 (954)
Calistocyrtus Ritter, 1911 (903)page 25
30. Scales very long and pointed, with short striations Lepidobrya Womersley, 1937 (1176)
Scales shorter 31
31. Claw with a pair of external, lateral basal teeth, generally elongate, in addition to normal external teeth; mucro-dens joint usually with bow-like lamella Urewera Salmon, 1941 (910)
Claw without external lateral basal teeth, but with normal external teeth; mucro without bow-like lamella: Lepidosira Schött, 1925 (965)
32. Clavate tenent hairs present; ocelli, eight to each side 33
Clavate tenent hairs absent; ocelli reduced 34
33. Mucro bidentate Lepidocyrtus Bourlet, 1839 (159)
=Paidium Koch, 1840 (662)
Mucro falciform Drepanocyrtus Handschin, 1925 (533)
34. Mucro bidentate, with one basal spine; ocelli, two to each side Lepidiaphanus Salmon, 1949 (925)
Mucro bidentate, with two basal spines; ocelli, six to each side * Setogaster nov. nom.
=Trichogaster Handschin, 1932 (560)
Tribe Orchesellini Börner, 1906

* As the name Trichogaster is preoccupied, having already been used in the Diptera, Protozoa and Pisces before Handschin used it, I propose the new name Setogaster in its place.

Key to the Genera of the Orchesellini
1. Scales present 2
Scales absent 10
2. Antennae with four segments, of which none is secondarily divided 3
Antennae with I or both I and II secondarily divided, giving the appearance of 5–6 segments 4
3. Ant IV longer than body and annulated; Abd. IV only slightly longer than Abd. III Typhlopodura Absolon, 1900 (5)
Ant III and Ant IV both annulated and much longer than body Mastigoceras Handschin, 1924 (531)
4. Apex of abdomen with a long finger-like process Heteromuricus Imms, 1912 (603)
Apex of abdomen without process 3
5. Antennae with five segments, Ant I being secondarily divided; Ants. IV and V or only V generally annulated 6
Antennae with six segments, Ants. I and II being secondarily divided, the fifth and sixth annulated; dens with spines Dicranocentrus Schött, 1893 (952)
6. Dens with spines; Ants. IV and V annulated Alloscopus Börner, 1906 (147)
Dens without spines 7
7. Abd. IV 8–10 times as long as Abd. III; mesonotum overlapping head; Ant. IV not annulated Strongylonotus MacGillivray. 1894 (725)
Abd. IV not more than five times as long as Abd. III 8
8. Antennae annulated; ocelli reduced to two or absent; Abd. IV three times as long as Abd. III 9
Antennae not annulated; ocelli, two to each side Heteromurodes Absolon, 1901 (8)page 26
9. Ants. IV and V both annulated; ocelli absent Verhoeffiella Absolon, 1900 (5)
Ant. V only annulated; ocelli, two to each side Ptenura Templeton, 1842 (1056)
=Heteromurus Wankel, 1860 (1122)
Templetonia Lubbock, 1862 (706)
Propemesira Salmon, 1942 (913) (918)
10. Antennae with six segments; Abd. IV twice as long as Abd III Orchesella Templeton, 1835 (1055)
=Heteretoma Bourlet, 1839 (159)
Aetheocerus Bourlet; 1842 (161)
Antennae with five segments: Abd. IV 3–4 times as long as Abd. III Orchesellides Bonet, 1930 (116)
=Orchezelandia Salmon, 1937
(908) (123)
Sub-Family Paronellinae Börner, 1906
Key to the Genera of the Paronellinae
1. Scales present 2
Scales absent 11
2. With thorax strongly humped dorsally 3
Thorax not humped; body normal 4
3. With the hump strongest on the mesothorax Idiomerus Imms, 1912 (603)
With the hump strongest on the metathorax Campylothorax Schött, 1893 (952)
4. Antennae half as long as body, with segments I and II densely clothed with long black setae; mucro with five teeth Dicranocentroides Imms, 1912 (603)
Antennae without long black setae; normal 5
5. Dens spined; mucro small, with 2–4 teeth 6
Dens without spines; mucro with 5–7 teeth 10
6. Dens with simple spines 7
Dens with serrated spines; mucro not distinctly separated from dens and with three teeth Bromacanthus Schött, 1925 (965)
7. Mucro sometimes reduced to a stump, but if dentate then with two teeth 9
Mucro well developed, with 3–4 teeth 8
8. Dens with apical scale-like lobe Paronella Schött, 1893 (952)
=Tricorypha Schött, 1893 (952)
Dens without apical scale-like lobe Callyntrura Börner, 1906 (147)
9. Dens at apex with two scale-like lobes Paronana Womersley, 1939 (1181)
Dens without scale-like lobes at apex Pseudoparonella Handschin, 1925 (533)
10. Dens at apex with two small scale-like appendages Handschinphysa Paclt 1947 (828)
=Phorophysa Salmon, 1945 (918)
Microphysa Handschin, 1925 (533)
Dens without scale-like appendages at apex Aphysa Handschin, 1925 (533)
11. Antennae at least twice as long as body 12
Antennae at most only slightly longer than body, sometimes shorter than body 15
12. Dentes with spines 13
Dentes without spines 14
13. Antennae more than twice as long as body, and on lower surface with long stiff setae, which are almost as long as the segment on which they are situated; Ant. IV annulated; dens at apex with two pubescent spine-like Parachaetoceras Salmon, 1941 (910)
Antennae without long setae; Ant. IV not annulated; dens at apex with scale-like plates ventrally and pubescent spine-like appendages dorsally Parasalina Salmon, 1944 (917)
=Paronana Womersley, 1939 (1181) [in part]page 27
14. Dens, near base of mucro, with a scale-like lobe; mucro with two teeth; antennae twice as long as body, without long setae Salina MacGillivray, 1894 (725)
=Cremastocephalus Schött, 1896 (957)
Dens without scale-like lobe; antennae more than twice as long as body and, on the lower surface, with long stiff setae—as long, or nearly as long, as the segment of the antennae on which they are situated * Plumachaetas nov. nom.
=Chaetoceras Handschin, 1926 (539)
15. Dentes with serrated spines; mucro with three teeth; antennae longer man body Glacialoca Salmon, 1941 (910)
Dentes without spines; mucro with 2–3 teeth 16
16. Antennae shorter than body; mucro with two teeth 17
Antennae longer than body 18
17. Small species, with a row of large, curved, ciliated, scale-like setae on each dens; dentes not annulated and without apical scale-like plates Micronellides Salmon, 1944 (917)
Large species, without scale-like setae on dentes, but with each dens annulated and provided with an apical scale-like plate Akabosia Kinoshita, 1919 (631)
18. Mucro with two teeth Paronellides Schött, 1925 (965)
=Pterikrypta Ritter, 1911 (903)
Pericrypta Schött, 1925 (965)
Mucro with three teeth Pseudoparonellides Salmon, 1941 (910)
Sub-Family Cyphoderinae Börner, 1906
Tribe Troglopedetini Börner, 1906

This sub-family contains two genera only; separated as follows:—

With a single ocellus to each side of the head Troglopedetina Delamare-Deboutteville, 1945 (315)
Ocelli absent Troglopedetes Absolon, 1907 (19)
=Cyphoderopsis Carpenter, 1917 (233)
Trogolaphysa Mills, 1938 (767)
Tribe Cyphoderini Börner, 1906

* The name Chaetoceras is preoccupied in the Lepidoptera, where it was used by Warren in 1896, and I propose the name Plumachaetas in its place.

Key to the Genera of the Cyphoderini
1. Mandibles normal, with molar plate; mouth terminal; dens with two rows of scales 2
Mandibles projecting, styliform, without molar plate or sometimes mouth shifted to sub-terminal ventral portion of head 7
2. Claws normal 3
Claws lobate or globular with basal spine; unguiculus sometimes reduced Cyphoderodes Silvestri, 1911 (989)
3. Dens 8–17 times longer than the mucro; mucro reduced, sometimes absent Cyphoda Delamare-Deboutteville, 1948 (332)
Dens 2–5 times longer than the mucro; mucro well developed, with teeth 4
4. Scales of dens on internal row progressively larger from base to apex and never more than three Serroderus Delamare-Deboutteville. 1948 (332)
Both rows of scales on dens more or less equal and not differing greatly from base to apex 5
5. Male with protuberance on Ant II Paracyphoderus Delamare-Deboutteville, 1948 (332)
Ant. II without protuberance 6page 28
6. Lateral and internal teeth of claw normal, not elongated Cyphoderus Nicolet, 1847 (801)
=Cyphodeirus Nicolet, 1842 (798)
Cyphodurus Nicolet, 1841 (797)
Beckia Lubbock, 1870 (708)
Lateral and internal teeth of claw greatly elongated, almost reaching to claw-tip Megacyphoderus Delamare-Deboutteville, 1948 (332)
7. Mouth parts styliform; mucro claw-like Calobatinus Silvestri, 1917 (991)
=* Calobatella Börner, 1913 (254)
Calobatana Strand, 1928 (1034)
Mouth parts normal, but sub-terminal and ventral 8
8. Mucro normal, toothed Cephalophilus Delamare-Deboutteville, 1948 (332)
Mucro reduced or absent 9
9. Mandible normal; mucro reduced, short, without teeth Pseudocyphoderus Imms, 1912 (603)
Mandibles reduced or absent; mucro absent Cyphoderinus Denis, 1942 (394)

* Calobatella was preoccupied when used by Börner and must, therefore, be replaced by Calobatinus Silvestri.