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Keys and Bibliography to the Collembola—First Supplement

New Genera Described Since 1950

New Genera Described Since 1950


PAGE 7, Family Poduridae, add:
Abdominal segments distinct and separated Podura L., 1758 (695)
Abdominal segments fused, only the posterior borders of Abds. I and V indistinctly visible Mackenziella Hammer, 1953 (1407)

Through the kindness of Dr. Hammer, I have been able to examine the type material of Mackenziella psocoides and, although this monotypic genus may ultimately be found to be more closely related to the Actaletidae than the Poduridae, I place it for the present in the Poduridae. More detailed information on the morphology of Actaletes is required before this question can be properly decided.

PAGE 8: For 1 and 2, substitute:
1. Sense organ of Ant. III entirely exposed 2
Sense organ of Ant. III protected by cuticular fold or pocket 3page 4
2. Unguiculus present but sometimes reduced or rudimentary; sense organ Ant. III consisting of 2–3 (rarely 4) superior sense rods which are straight or slightly curved and two inferior sense rods between them; antennal base generally present with cuticular granules smaller than those on the rest of the head Tullbergia Lubbock, 1876 (711)
=Synonymy as previously given
Unguiculus absent; sense organ Ant. III of three sense clubs only Paleotulbergia Delamare-Deboutteville, 1951 (1310)
PAGE 10: Sub-family Hypogastrurinae, For 3 and 4, substitute and add:
3. Postantennal organ simple 3a
Postantennal organ well developed with peripheral lobes 5
3a. Postantennal organ large, more or less eliptical 4
Postantennal organ very small, circular; anal spines absent; mucro simple without lamellae Anachorutes Bagnall, 1949 (1213)
4. Anal spines present; three clavate tenent hairs to each foot Gomphiocephalus Carpenter, 1902 (225)
Anal spines absent; less than three tenent hairs to each foot 4a
4a. With clavate tenent hairs to each foot; unguiculus absent Choreutinula Paclt, 1944 (1513)
=Beckerellodes Salmon, 1945 (918)
Beckerella Axelson, 1912 (690)
With only one clavate tenent hair to each foot; unguiculus present Neobeckerella Wray, 1952 (1633)
PAGE 10: For 5, substitute and add:
5. Peripheral lobes of postantennal organ well developed 5a
Peripheral lobes of postantennal organ indistinct and poorly developed 15
5a. Top of head with several strong spines Mitchellania Wray, 1953 (1634)
Top of head without spines 6
PAGE 11: Under 15, for "ocelli two to each side," etc., substitute:
Ocelli reduced 15a
15a. Ocelli four or five to each side; unguiculus reduced or without lamellae; anal spines present Denigastrura Stach, 1949 (1028)
Ocelli two to each side; unguiculus reduced to a long bristle; anal spines absent; pigmentation reduced or entirely absent Mesogastrura Bonet, 1930 (115)
PAGE 11: Under 19, substitute and add:
19. Ocelli present but reduced; unguiculus reduced to a tubercle or absent; pigmented species 20
Ocelli absent; pigment absent; body setae smooth 21
20. Five ocelli to each side; some body setae serrated; Abd. VI with two small to medium anal spines Propexenylla Salmon, 1944 (917)
Four ocelli to each side; setae simple; Abd. VI with eight large dorsal spines Prospinaura Wray, 1952 (1633)page 5
21. Tenent hairs and anal spines present Acherontiellina Delamare-Deboutteville, 1948 (334)
Tenent hairs absent 22
22. With five large dorsal spines on Abd. VI * Wrayella n.g.
Without dorsal or anal spines on Abd. VI Acherontiella Absolon, 1913 (21)
PAGE 12; Under 5, substitute:
5. Anal spines present 6
Anal spines absent 5a
5a. Furcula present, very long and slender; antennae three times as long as head Pscudanurida Schött, 1901 (959)
=Synonymy as previously given
Furcula absent; antennae subequal to head in length Setanurida Salmon, 1954 (1537)

PAGES 13–14: Tribe Anuridini, change to Sub-family Anuridinae.

Under 1, second line, change "8" to "9" and delete from 5 to end of key, and substitute:
5. Furcula rudimentary, reduced to a pair of small tubercles 6
Furcula absent 7
6. Ocelli five to each side Hypanurida Denis, 1931 (369)
Ocelli absent, postantennal organ present Grananurida Yosii, 1954 (1645)
7. Ocelli five to each side Anurida Laboulbene, 1865 (653)
=Achorutes Guérin, 1838 (515)
Anoura Nicolet, 1847 (801)
Aphoroma Dalla Torre, 1895 (280)
Ocelli less than five to each side 8
8. Ocelli three to each side Gastranurida Bagnall, 1949 (88)
Ocelli absent Apharomma MacGillivray, 1893 (724)
9. Ocelli eight to each side; Abd. VI narrow and tapering posteriorly to a point; furcula absent Meganurida Carpenter, 1935 (242)
Ocelli five to each side; Abd. VI hidden below Abd. V; maxilla with a long lamella hearing four rows of fringes; furcula absent Morulodes Cassagnau, 1955 (1278)
PAGE 14: Tribe Neanurini, change to Sub-family Neanurinae. Substitute the following new key for the original one:

* this genus is proposed here for the species Prospinanura oxfordi Wray 1953, which does not appear to me to be co-generic with P. kardosia Wray, 1952. The type species for this new genus is Wrayella (P.) oxfordi (Wray, 1953) (1639).

* I have examined the cotype of L. sauteri in the Börner collection in the British Museum (Natural History), and can now state definitely that Lobella is a good genus which should no longer be taken as a synonym of Neanura as in my original "Keys," p. 14.

I have examined specimens of M. gigantea Tullb. in the British Museum (Natural History) amongst the Börner Collection purchased in 1907. These were presented to Börner by Tullberg. Abd. VI is not hidden below Abd. V, as has been stated in the literature, and is distinctly bilobed. Stach, 1951 (1578), while stating that Abd. VI in this genus is hidden below Abd. V (page 6), figures the species M. verrucosa (Pl. 1, Fig. 1), with Abd. VI distinct and bilobed.

1. Ocelli present 2
Ocelli absent 17
2. Ocelli with normal rounded or semi-globular corneas 2
Ocelli with abnormal, oval to elliptical-shaped corneas each divided transversely by a fine streak into two semi-circular contiguous sections Binocularia Stach, 1951 (1578)
3. Mandible toothed 4
Mandible without teeth, more or less stylet-like and smooth Uchidanura Yosii, 1954 (1645)
4. Mandible with two parallel, toothed lamellae body without bosses but Abd. VI bilobed Womersleya Denis, 1948 (400)
Mandible with teeth but without lamellae 5page 6
5. Maxilla with teeth and sometimes with lamellae also 6
Maxilla styliform without teeth 10
6. Maxilla with elongated head consisting of median shaft and serrated lateral lamellae 7
Maxilla with teeth but without lamellae 8
7. Furcula indicated by a group of setae on a faint papilla Yuukianura Yosii, 1955 (1647)
No indication of the presence of a furcula Protanura Börner, 1906 (147)
8. Postantennal organ present 9
Postantennal organ absent; ocelli three to each side; Abd. VI not bilobed but with eight distinct bosses * Lobella Börner, 1906 (147)
9. Furcula present but very rudimentary, consisting of two contiguous papillae; postantennal organ a cluster of many tubercles; ocelli five to each side Morulina Börner, 1906 (147)
Furcula absent; postantennal organ simple, large and elliptical; ocelli two to each side Pseudobiloba Stach, 1951 (1578)
10. With both dorsal and lateral bosses 11
Dorsal bosses very much reduced 18
11. Mandible hook or sickle-shaped apically with strong teeth 12
Mandible elongated with one large, sub-apical tooth and sometimes a smaller one as well; setae usually much broadened or spatulate Metanura Yosii, 1954 (1645)
12. Abd. VI clearly visible from above 13
Abd. VI hidden partly or completely below Abd. V 16
13. Dorsal internal bosses from Th. II to Abd. IV arranged in three rows down each side with a further fourth row down the paratergal areas 14
Dorsal internal bosses varying in number and not generally arranged in rows but with usually a median boss to each segment; setae distinctly serrated Imfarituberculata Stach, 1951 (1578)
14. Abd. V with two dorsal internal bosses and two dorso-lateral bosses to each side Neanura MacGillivray, 1893 (724)
Achorutes Templeton, 1835 (1055)
Blax Koch, 1840 (633)
Anoura Gervais, 1843 (483)
Anura Tullberg, 1869 (1072)
Bictavella Willem, 1902 (1138)
Dorsal internal bosses absent from Abd. V 15page 7
15. The dorso-lateral bosses of Abd. V on each side elongated and fused, forming a ridge extending to the large boss of Abd. VI Thaumanura Börner, 1932 (1236)
The dorso-lateral bosses of Abds. III–V elongated projecting posteriorly like giant tubercles Adbiloba Stach, 1951 (1578)
16. Abd. IV with two dorsal internal bosses and two latero-dorsal bosses to each side; Abd. V with two large bosses Bilobella Caroli, 1912 (209)
Abd. IV with four dorsal internal bosses and two dorso-external bosses to each side; Abd. V with two dorsal internal bosses or one large internal boss and two dorso-external bosses to each side Lathriopyga Caroli, 1910 (207)
17. Abds. I-V fused; Abd. VI bilobed; setae very long and simple Sericanura Carpenter, 1935 (242)
Abd. V truncate posteriorly and with Abd. VI hidden below it; stout spines present dorsally on head and trunk Echinanura Carpenter, 1935 (242)
18. Mandible with some apical teeth 19
Mandible curved, sickle-shaped, with a fringe or setae; some dorso-lateral bosses present Crossodontina Yosii, 1954 (1645)
19. Bosses present on the head and laterally only on the trunk; dorsol bosses absent; setae serrated Gnathalohche Börner, 1906 (147)
Bosses entirely absent 20
20. Abdominal segments indistinctly separated Pronura Delamare-Deboutteville, 1953 (1313)
Abds. IV-VI fused; body markedly flattened and extended laterally but without distinct paratergites; ocelli two to each side Phylliomeria Delamare-Deboutteville, 1948 (331)

PAGE 15: Tribe Pseudachorutini: Change to Sub-family Pseudachorutinae.

PAGE 16: Under 11, delete the second part of the key below Pseudochorudina and substitute:
Maxilla styliform, without distinct head; ocelli 5–8 to each side; postantennal organ with 3–20 lobes arranged either in a circle or in ellipse 11a
11a. Cuticle normal; furcula present, the mucro spoon-like Pscudachorutes Tullberg, 1871 (1073)
Cuticle tuberculated as in Neanura; furcula re-reduced, the mucro absent Protachorutes Cassagnau, 1955 (1278)
PAGE 16: under 13, substitute:
13. Ocelli eight to each side; postantennal organ with 17–40 lobes 13a
Ocelli less than eight to each side 14
13a. Mandible and maxilla both present, the mandible toothed, the maxilla styliform Aethiopella Handschin, 1942 (563)
Mandible absent; maxilla styliform Aethiopellina Delamare-Deboutteville, 1951 (1310)
PAGE 17: Under 17 substitute and add:
17. Mucro boat-like; mandible with two apical teeth Pseutdachorutella Stach, 1949 (1029)
Mucro long and slender 17apage 8
17a. Mandible with eight apical teeth; maxilla with two apical lamellae, one of which bears two small teeth Montachorutes Stach, 1949 (1029)
Mandible with six apical teeth; maxilla styliform Arlesiella Delamare-Deboutteville, 1951 (1310)
PAGE 17: Under 19, substitute and add:
19. Ocelli present but reduced in number 20
Ocelli absent; mandible with eight apical teeth * Kenyura Salmon, 1954 (1537)
20. Ocelli five to each side; mandible with not more than four apical teeth Arlesia Handschin, 1942 (563)
Ocelli seven to each side; mandible with 25–30 apical teeth Handschinia Stach, 1940 (1029)

The Genus Portachorutes Wray, 1953, falls into this key near Arlesia and Handschinia, but as Wray does not describe the mouth parts it is impossible to place the genus correctly in the key.

PAGE 18: Sub-family Anurophorinae, under 2, substitute and add:
2. Anal spines present on Abd. V 2a
Anal spines present on Abd. VI; furcula present or absent; ocelli eight to each side 3
2a. From 15–30 anal spines arranged as a crown; dens and mucro fused Proctostephanus Börner, 1902 (142)
Anal spines in two rows; dens and mucro separated and distinct Weberacantha Christiansen, 1951 (1288)
PAGE 20: Under 3, substitute and add:
3. Dental spines serrated 4
Dental spines simple, but each arising from a papilla 3a
3a. Dental spines light and slender; mucro with four teeth Proisotomurus Womersley, 1934 (1169)
Dental spines heavy and blunt; mucro with three teeth Semicerura Maynard, 1951 (1484)

PAGE 20: Under 13, second line, change 32 to 35.

PAGE 21: Under 25: I can find no reason from their descriptions for justifying retention of the genera Micrisotoma Bellinger, 1952 (1226) and Metisotoma Maynard, 1951 (1487), both of which should be entered as synonyms of Isotomedia Salmon, 1944.

PAGE 21: Under 22, second line: Change 27 to 28, and from 26 amend the key as follows:

* Re-examination of the Genus Kenyura suggests that it is better placed within the Sub-family Pseudachorutinae rather than in the Anuridinae, and accordingly I have moved it. Abd. VI is slightly covered by Abd. V, and this, together with the styliform maxilla, makes this change necessary.

26. Setae of the body simple 27
Setae of the body serrated Euisotoma Börner, 1901 (140)
27. Dentes not crenulated but with numerous coarse hemispherical tubercles Granisotoma Stach, 1947 (1027)
Dentes crenulated without tubercles Isotoma Bourlet, 1839 (159)
=Padura Müller, 1776 (789)
Desoria Nicolet, 1841 (797)
Desoria Agassiz, 1841 (24)
Apoeona Gistl, 1848 (140)
28. Abds. V and VI fused 29
Abds. V and VI distinctly serrated 33page 9
29. Ocelli eight to each side; postantennal organ elongate elliptical 30
Ocelli reduced to six or less to each side 32
30. Sexually dimorphic; males with up to eight heavy spines on dorsum of Abds. V–VI; postantennal organ without transverse constriction 31
Not sexually dimorphic; without long ciliated setae posteriorly on dorsum; postantennal organ usually with constriction across its middle Isotomina Börner, 1903 (144)
31. Posteriorly on body many long ciliated setae Frisonia Wray, 1952 (1633)
Posteriorly on body many long smooth setae Cliforga Wray, 1952 (1633)
32. Ocelli present, either six or less to each side; postantennal organ present, elliptical in shape Proisotomina Salmon, 1948 (921)
Ocelli and postantennal organ both absent Isotomiella Bagnall, 1940 (84)
33. Ocelli eight to each side; postantennal organ with thickened, flap-like, divided margins; micro tridentate Heteroisotoma Stach, 1947 (1027)
Ocelli reduced; postantennal organ without thickened margins 34
34. Ocelli six or less to each side; postantennal organ present, elliptical Parisotoma Bagnall, 1940 (84)
Ocelli absent; postantennal organ present, elliptical Isotominella Delamare-Deboutteville, 1948 (332)
35. Sexually dimorphic, male with horn-like structures on head or with terminal abdominal spines 36
Ant. II in male with a cluster of short, thick, ciliated setae; Abd. III near centre with a cluster of medium-length, curved, ciliated setae; body with numerous stout blunt ciliated bristles; tenent hairs absent; mucro bidentate Australotomurus Stach, 1947 (1027)
36. Abds. V and VI separated, distinct; Abd. V bearing 4–6 stout dorsal spines; furcula present, mucro with either two or four teeth; ocelli and postantennal organ both present Spinisotoma Stach, 1926 (1009)
Abds. V and VI fused; clavate tenent hairs present; mucro with three teeth; antennae thickened; males with long, curved horns on top of head Rhodanella Salmon, 1945 (918)
=Rhodesia Womersley, 1934 (1169)
PAGE 22: Key to the Tomocerini: Substitute the following new key:—
1. Postantennal organ present, rosette-shaped; ocelli two to each side Tomolonus Mills, 1948 (769)
Postantennal organ absent 2
2. Ocelli six to each side; clavate tenent hairs present 3
Ocelli absent; tenent hairs absent Tritomurus Frauenfeld, 1854 (476)
3. Maxilla head bearing fringes like a beard Tomocerus Nicolet, 1841 (769)
=Macrotoma Bourlet, 1839 (159)
Maxilla head without beard-like fringes Pogonognathellus Paclt, 1947 (828)
= Pogonognathus Börner, 1908 (149)
* Monodontocerus Yosii, 1955 (1647)

* The genus Monodontocerus Yosii, 1955, so far as I can see from its description, should be regarded as a synonym of Pogonognathellus Palct, 1947 (828).

page 10
PAGE 23: Under 3, substitute and add:
3. Ocelli eight to each side 3a
Ocelli reduced or absent; claw with basal wing-like teeth 4
3a. Both body and ocellar fields without pigment Isotobryoides Maynard, 1951 (1484)
Ocellar fields and body both pigmented 5
PAGE 23: Under 11, substitute and add:
11. Claw with basal wing-like teeth 11a
Claw without basal wing-like teeth; mucro at apex of dens 12
11a. Mucro falciform and situated sub-apically on dens Metasinella Denis, 1929 (363)
=Sulcuncus Mills, 1938 (767)
Mucro bidentate, with basal spine and situated at apex of dens Troglosinella Delamare-Deboutteville, 1949 (335)

The genus Troglosinella was previously erroneously included within that part of the key dealing with those genera in which the dentes were not spined. It should now be deleted from page 24 under 21.

PAGE 24: Under 26 and 27: The genus Mesosirodes Börner, 1901, was erected for Pseudosinella virei Absolon [.(12), p. 87], but as this species has only one wing-like tooth to the claw, Mesosirodes must be a synonym of Sirodes instead of Pseudosinella Schaeffer. In the genus Sirodes the basal wing-like tooth of the claw is very small, though quite distinctly basal and plate- or wing-like in form.

PAGE 26: Tribe Orchesellini, under 9: Add the genus Euheteromurus Börner, 1901 (140), as a synonym of Ptenura Templeton, 1842.

PAGE 26: Sub-family Paronellinae: Under 8, the genera Paronella Schött and Callyntrura Börner have been shown in a recent paper by myself (in the press) to be synonyms. The name Paronella takes priority and the key should be amended thus:
7. Mucro sometimes reduced to a stump, but if dentate, then with two teeth 8
Mucro well developed with 3–6 teeth; dens with or without apical scale-like lobe Paronella Schött, 1893 (952)
= Tricorypha Schött, 1893 (952)
Callyntrura Börner, 1906 (147)
* Microparonella Carpenter, 1916 (232)

(9 then becomes 8, 10 becomes 9, and so on to the end of the key.)

PAGE 27: Tribe Troglopedetini: Delete the original key and substitute:
1. Ocelli present 2
Ocelli absent 3
2. With one ocellus to each side Troglopedetina Delamare-Deboutteville, 1945 (315)
With six ocelli to each side Trogonella Delamare-Deboutteville, 1951 (1311)
3. Dens with one row of dental spines Troglopedetes Absolon, 1907 (19)
Dens with two rows of dental spines Cyphoderopsis Carpenter, 1917 (233)
=Trogolaphysa Mills, 1938 (767)

After examining Carpenter's type material of the genus Microparonella in the British Museum (Natural History), I am satisfied that this genus is synonymous with Callyntrura and Paronella.

* Omitted from the original key.

page 11
PAGE 29: Tribe Katiannini, under 2, substitute and add:
2. Ant. III always with basal peg-like or wart-like sense organ and often with apical sense organ of rods and clubs as well 2a
Ant. III with apical sense organ of rods and clubs only, never with basal wart-like or peg-like sense organ; Ant. IV clearly subdivided Katiannina Maynard, 1951 (1484)
2a. Ant. IV subdivided though often indistinctly so; Ant. III with either peg-like or wart-like sense organ on basal half 3
Ant. IV not subdivided; sense organ on basal half of Ant. III always wart-like 9
PAGE 29: Under 8, delete "Polykatianna, etc.," and substitute "8a"; then add:
8a. Mouth parts normal Polykatianna Salmon, 1944 (917)
Mouth parts having mandible with poorly developed molar area and maxilla very long and narrow with three apical lamellae Stenognathellus Cassagnau, 1953 (1270)
PAGE 30: Sub-family Dicyrtominae, under 1, substitute and add:
1. Claw with a distinct tunica; Ants. III and IV neither subdivided nor annulated; dens with or without serrated setae 1a
Claw without a tunica 2
1a. Posterior dorsum elevated and covering anal segment from above Gibberathrix Uchida, 1952 (1608)
Body normal, posterior dorsum not elevated 1b
1b. Ants. III and IV with warts or tuberculate outgrowths; setae of Ant. IV not unusually long Dicyrtomina Börner, 1903 (144)
Ants. III and IV without such warts or outgrowths but of irregular shape; Ant. IV with long setae Papirinus Yosii, 1954 (1645)
PAGE 30: Tribe Bourletiellini: Delete the original key and substitute the following new key which necessarily follows from the recent revision of this tribe made by J. Stach;—
1. With stout spine-like, serrated, or truncated bristles, either present on all legs, or more generally on the hind tibiotarsi only 2
Tibiotarsi of all legs without such bristles 5
2. Tibiotarsal bristles thick, truncate, and irregularly arranged on all legs but sometimes on hind tibiotarsi only; unguiculus lancet-like, with long spatulate accessory bristle Andiella Stach, 1955 (1580)
Tibiotarsal bristles spine-like or serrated; unguiculus simple 3
3. The Bristles spine-like and irregularly arranged 4
The bristles serrated and regularly arranged in rows (rastral organ) down the inner surfaces of the hind tibiotarsi Rastriopes Börner, 1906 (147)
4. With swellings or protuberances bearing stout spines on top of head or dorsum Bovicornia Delamare-Deboutteville, 1947 (319)
Without such swellings or protuberances Prorastriopes Delamare-Deboutteville, 1947 (319)
5. Unguiculus present 6
Unguiculus absent 11
6. Lamellae of mucro smooth 7
Lamellae of mucro crenulated Nasosminthurus Stach, 1955 (1580)page 12
7. With 6–7 clavate tenent hairs to each foot; Abd. V with "pear-like protuberances," each armed with several spines Polyclavella Stach, 1955 (1580)
With 2–3 clavate tenent hairs to each foot; Abd. V normal without protuberances 8
8. Unguiculus the same shape on all feet 9
Unguiculus on front feet distinctly different in shape from middle and hind feet Heterosminthurus Stach, 1955 (1580)
9. Setae on posterior face of dens longer than the distance between their insertions; body rounded dorso-longitudinally; clasping organ present in male and consisting of hooks or curved bristles on the genital segment Bourletiella Banks, 1899 (90)
Setae of posterior face of dens shorter than the distance between their insertions; body more elongate and flattened dorso-longitudinally; clasping organ absent from male 10
10. Claw with tunica Eusminthurus Börner, 190 (135)
Claw without tunica Deuterosminturus Börner, 1901 (140)
= Deuterosminturus Börner, 1901 (140)
11. Unguiculus absent; body normal Aneuempodialis Stach, 1955 (1576)
Unguiculus replaced by an accessory clavate hair; dorsal surface of body with swellings or protuberances Corynephoria Absolon, 1907 (19)
PAGE 31: From 3 on, delete the original key and add:
3. Claw with tunica 4
Claw without tunica 6
4. Genital segment with two bothriotrichia 5
Genital segment without bothriotrichia Lipothrix Börner, 1906 (147)
5. With spines on top of head and spine-like setae on dorsum Parasphyrotheca Salmon, 1951 (1539)
Without such spines or spine-like setae Sphyrotheca Börner, 1906 (147)
6. Dens with both short, spine-like setae and longer, slender clavate setae; mucro serrated on one edge only * Rhopalothrix Schött, 1926 (967)
Dens without clavate setae; mucro serrated on both edges Parrhopalites Bonet & Tellez, 1947 (134)

* Omitted from the original key.