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Zoology Publications from Victoria University of Wellington—Nos. 78, 79 and 80

Family Alpheidae

Family Alpheidae

The following species have been recorded from the New Zealand region: Alpheopsis garricki Yaldwyn, 1971, Alpheus nouvaezealandiae Miers, 1876, Alpheus richardsoni Yaldwyn, 1971, Alpheus socialis Heller, 1865 and Betaeopsis aequimanus (Dana, 1852). However, Yaldwyn (1959) noted that Alpheus novaezealandiae had not been found in New Zealand for 50 years. Early larvae of the other four species have been hatched and reared by the present author, and although not yet studied page 4in detail, it is possible to distinguish between them on the basis of the key provided below.

Larvae of the family Alpheidae can be distinguished by the following combination of characters.

Alpheid larval characters

1.Supraorbital spines when present without spinules (Fig. 1A).
2.Pereiopod 5 develops before pereiopods 3 and 4, terminal spine of dactylus extremely long (extends at least beyond eyes) and provided with spinules distally (Figs. IB, C).
3.Protopod of maxilla with 3 endites only, exopod shorter than endopod in early larvae (Fig. 1H).
4.Endopod of maxillule small and unsegmented.
5.Endopod of maxilliped 1 with two or three incomplete segments (as indicated by setation), never with indication of four segments (Figs. ID, E).
6.Maxillipeds 2-3 and pereiopods raptorial in form, with spiniform serrate and simple setae, dactylus produced into a strong spine (e.g. Figs. IF, G).

Key to larvae of the New Zealand Alpheidae1
A. Rostrum as long as or longer than antennular peduncle; with supraorbital spines from zoea 2; strong posterolateral spines on abdominal somite 5 from zoea 3; pereiopod 5 not developed until zoea 3 (Fig. 1A) Betaeopsis aequimanus
Rostrum short, does not extend beyond eyes; without supraorbital spines or posterolateral abdominal spines in zoeae 1-3; pereiopod 5 developed in zoea 2 (Fig. IB) B
B. Endopod of maxilliped 1 very small, with two incomplete segments (as indicated by setation) (Fig. ID) Alpheus richardsoni
Endopod of maxilliped 1 with three incomplete segments (as indicated by setation) Cpage 5
C. Ischium of maxilliped 3 without spiniform seta (Fig. IF) Alpheus socialis
Ischium of maxilliped 3 with spiniform seta (Fig. 1G) Alpheopsis garricki

1 Excludes Alpheus novaezealandiae