The New Zealanders at Gallipoli
After the unsuccessful attack on Krithia early in May, Sir Ian Hamilton cabled Home for two more Army Corps, pointing out that apparently we were to be left to our own resources in the campaign; the Greeks had decided not to move at all, and the Russians had been so punished by the Austro-Germans as to give up all hope of moving against Constantinople from the Black Sea. The General, in his Third Despatch to the Secretary of State for War, goes on to say:— “During June your Lordship became persuaded of the bearing of these facts, and I was promised three regular divisions, plus the infantry of two territorial divisions. The advance page 188 guard of these troops was due to reach Mudros by July 10; by August 10 their concentration was to be complete.”
|The French Army Corps||1st Division
The 8th Army Corps
|29th Division (Regular Army)
42nd (East Lancs.) Division
52nd (Lowland) Division
|General Headquarters Troops||Royal Naval Division|
|The A. & N.Z. Army Corps||1st Australian Division
N.Z. & Australian Division
The 9th Army Corps
|10th (Irish) Division
11th (Northern) Division
13th (Western) Division
|The Infantry Brigade only of||53rd (Welsh) Division
54th (East Anglian) Division
All of the troops—owing to the demands of the French front—were woefully deficient in artillery. The 9th Army Corps were part of the New Army—generally known as Kitchener's Army—and, of course, had not seen service. The infantry of the 53rd and 54th Divisions were of the Territorial Force, and likewise were inexperienced in war. These were the troops it was determined to lead against seasoned soldiers—inured to hardship and fighting for their native soil—the veterans of the Turkish Regular Army.
But when and where should these reinforcements be used?
[Lent by Sergt. P. Tite, N.Z.E.
Headquarters Signal Office.
Signallers, telephonists, and linesmen risk their lives day and night sending and carrying messages and repairing wires. Snipers watch the wire and pick off the linesmen. It is significant that the only New Zealand V.C. awarded during the campaign went to a signaller.
So far, we knew what troops were available, when they would arrive, and the most desirable time to use them. Next, we must examine the proposals as to where they should be used to gain the greatest advantage.