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The Ancient History of the Maori, His Mythology and Traditions. Awatea, Taranaki, Nga-Ti-Hau Nga-Ti-Rua-Nui [Vol. VIII, English]

Chapter 8

page (71)(72)

Chapter 8

O Rirori
Of shadowy days
I loathe it now
The work gone by
I now revolt
With dread disgust
To see the torn
And shattered shreds
Of all that could
Be held and saved
Tis nothing new,
Twas done in ancient times
By all your forefathers,
Who now are in
The world of spirits
Quiet, silent and unmoved.

page (73)

Flying Man

Uenga-o-te-rangi (impel the heaven) possessed the power of flying, so did Tu waka (medium) and Tama-roro (son of the entrance). Maru (protection) also could fly and Uke-were (Uke) (hung up of old) Rehua (make fire by friction or chip) was a man, behold his dwelling places were called Tupu-o-te-rangi (contingents of heaven) and Tawhito-o-te-rangi (ancient of heaven), these places are like the hill of Iku-rangi (Hiku rangi, tail of heaven). The daughter of Rehua Taki-ao-te-rangi (precourser of light in heaven) lived with Tu kai taua (war eater), and the ears of Rehua were deaf, Ngongo (suck through a tube) blew into his ears with his trumpet called Koringo tangi roa, (sharp long frond), and then the ears of Rehua were cured, he could again hear men speak (and also all the noises of the world) for this he gave his daughter Taki o te rangi to Ngongo as his wife as a reward for his curing the ears of Rehua, Maru was angry with Rehua for giving Taki ao te rangi to Ngongo, as she had been the wife of Maru's son called Tu kai taua, and Maru sent the grub awhato, and the beetle Moe one and the caterpillar Kauwaha into the garden Maara of Rehua to punish him. The garden of Rehua was called Moana uru uru, and all the crop of Rehua was destroyed, then for the first time did Rehua and Maru fight, behold Maru was vanquished he was driven away and he fled from Rehua, and in his escaping he let his sleeping mat fall, which was called the Waikopa (Whakakopa) (folded of the heaven) o te rangi. The battles of Rehua were called Taruru (beguile) Tao-oioi (tumbling spear) and Whitianga-te-ra (shining of the sun) Maru flew into the inside of the rock called Toka wa iti (rock of small space) (Whaiti). The proverb for Rehua and Maru is "Ko te ika o Taki-ao-te-rangi-Tu-kai-taua a Maru raua ko Rehua, Ko te ika o ware-paia, te page (RTMSS) (258)(74)uru o Tawhitinui, ko te wahine tena i kai taua ai te ao ko te ika o Hine-nui-te-po, ka mate a pikara-nui, ko te ika o oranga-nui ka mate a Kewa ki roto ki Ruaki-pouri. The quarrel about or the fault of Taki o te rangi caused Maru and Rehua to feed upon war the fault of Ware (Whare) paia the offspring of Tawiti nui truly feed the world with war the fault of Hine nui te po was punished in the bloody battle at Pikara-nui. The fault of Oranganui was punished in the battle of Kewa within the dark cave Rua ki pouri his house. From Toka-whiti Maru uttered his spells.

page (75)

The Flying Tribe,
that is the Rauru flying in the little space,
the flying of the bird of the sun


This is the Proverb of the Maru-i-te-ra (the bird of the sun) "Maramarama ana tatu o te rangi" (it is light – where the heaven reaches down). He (the bird of the sun) was a god, and the name of his house was Whare-totoka (House of the door way) and also in the lightning which spreads over the sky, such was the place (Home). The bird of the sun, and to the Puke-hikurangi (hill on the tail of heaven) damp or wet did not go, nor did the nibbling of the grub, or the decay of old age or ………. ever be seen in, or come to his house, to the house of The bird of the sun.

Te-uenga-o-te-rangi (the inciter) of heaven) flew, and Tu-waka (stand as the medium) flew, as did Tama-roro (son of brain) Maru (protector) and Rehua, who was a good man, whose home was called Tupu-o-te-rangi (growing of heaven) and Tawhito-o-te-rangi (ancient of heaven) which places are equal to hill called Hiku-rangi (tail of heaven).

Taki-ao-te-rangi (guide the cloud of heaven) daughter of Rehua was taken to wife by Tu-Kai-taua (Tu (god of war), eaten in war). Now the ears of Rehua became deaf, and Ngongo (suck through a reed) blew into them with his flute, the name of that flute was Koringo-tangi-roa (shrill long sound) by which the ears of Rehua could hear, the talk of men, so Rehua gave Taki-o-te-rangi (leader of heaven) to Ngongo as his wife in payment for what he had done to his Rehua's ears. Maru for this act was enraged with Rehua, and so he allowed the Awhato (sphaeria robertsii) and Moe-one (a species of grub) and the Kau-waha (a certain caterpillar which is white) into the page (76)cultivations of Rehua, called Moana-uruuru (angry sea) which killed the crop of Rehua, which was the origin of a war between Rehua and Maru, Maru was thrown down, and he was pursued by Rehua, and the mat teinga (mat to sleep on) of Maru fell from him, the name of this mat was Te-whakakopa-o-te-rangi (folded up of heaven) and the names of the wars of Rehua and Maru were Taruru (beguile) Ta-oioi (dash trembling) and Whitianga-te-ra (shining of the sun). Maru fled into Toka-Whaiti (narrow rock) which was a stone.

This is the Proverb for Rehua and Maru

The fish of Guidance-in-heaven,
War eaten of Maru and Rehua.
The fish of House-of-beautiful-dawn
Of the head of Great-distance
Which female caused war (by adultery)
To come on all the world.
The fish of Great-daughter-of night
Caused the death of Great-conspiracy,
The fish of Great-life
Caused the death of Extinguished,
In the House of ?-in-darkness
As Maru is chanting in
The house (temple) Rock-across.

Tama-aewa-rere-rangi (son of the wandering flight in heaven) begat Rakei-wananga-ora (grand medium of life) who walked on the earth, and did not fly in the air, who begat the Kahui-kapua (flock of clouds) who begat Kapua-nui (great land) Kapua-roa (long cloud) Kapua-tautahi (single cloud) and Kapua-paia (cloud shut up) who took to wife Kapua-pingao (cloud on the desmoschoenus spiralis) and begat Te-au-roa (long current) who begat A-pe-roro (the brains page (76A to follow this) (76A)made into a mash) who begat Nga-iwi (the tribes) who begat Tau-o-te-rangi (beloved of heaven) who begat Aperahama Parea (pushed aside). All the people of Nga-rauru (hair of the head) or those from whom they take their origin are included in this genealogy.

page (77)


This man the Bird-of-the-Sun was of a certain tribe, who were men (like our selves) who had a home on the mountain called Hiku-rangi (tail of heaven). Great was the evil of this world in those days, but the moth or the moss of damp cold (mildew or rust) could not get at the place where this man lived and Totoka (congeal) was the name of his house, but his appearance was more like that of a god than the multitudes of men of this world, and the lightning of the heaven flashed in or about his house with bright light, and evil or mishap never came on or near to the house, and hence these words in respect to this house:

Fly, fly the Awa-iti (little rill)
And will, fly The-bird-of-the-Sun
And clear with light
To the lower part of Heaven

He the Bird of the sun was a comely person, and nobler looking than the men of this world, and his servants were named Uenga-o-te-rangi (steadfast of heaven) and this person lived with the Bird of the sun at the same home, and they were each of the male sex, but each were sacred, nor did they even have wives, and Uenga-o-te-rangi had the power or knew how to fly like a bird, as also did Tu-waka (man of the medium) and Tama-roro (son of the brain) was a man possessing the same power, as also Maru (authority) had the same knowledge of flying like a bird, each of them had the knowledge and power to fly in the open space of the sky, nor was this power or knowledge limited to the act of walking on the earth. Rehua (split) had the power also to fly like a bird, and was equal in all the knowledge which those above given possessed. Rehua was a good man, of mild temper, and kind and attentive to the people, and fed the orphans, and attended to, and guarded the poor. He lived at a place called Tupu-o-te-rangi (growth of heaven) which was on the ancient hills of heaven, and not unlike page (78)Hiku-rangi (tail of heaven) and was as good in appearance, and like it in not having any evil there, nor was there any moths or mildew there.

The daughter of Rehua (split to pieces) called Taki-ao-te-rangi (wait for dawn of day) took as her husband a man called Tu-kai-taua (god of war the army eaten) and Rehua was a deaf man, nor could he hear the voice of man, so that Ngo (suck water through a tube) blew into his ears with his wooden trumpet called Koringa-tangi-roa, (wriggling long cry) this Ngo did for a considerable time, and eventually Rehua regained his hearing, and he could again hear the voice of man, so that as Rehua had now gained his hearing he took Taki o te-rangi (speech made in heaven) and gave her to wife to Ngo, in payment for Ngo having cured his deafness, but on this account Maru (power) was angry with Rehua for having given Taki o te-rangi to Ngo, as she belonged to his son (the son of Maru) called Tu-kai-taua. Maru was enraged with Rehua, and in order to punish and completely overcome him, Maru he sent the Awhato (sphoeria robertsii), with the grub called Moe one (sleep in the sand) and the Kau-waha (a white caterpillar) into the Kumara (ipomoea batatas) crop. Now the name of the the kumara cultivation of Rehua was Moana-uruuru (the angry sea) and all the crop of Rehua was destroyed by those things which had been sent there by Maru, so Maru and Rehua entered on a war each with the other, and Maru was beaten, and he fled from the presence of Rehua, and he let fall his mat that he slept on, that is he lost it and it was called Wa-kopa-o-te-rangi (space of heaven folded). Maru and Rehua fought many battles, and these are the names of some of the battles they fought. Ta-ruru (close together) Tao-oioi (shaken spear) Whitianga-te-ra (shining of the sun). Then Maru fled into the rock called Toka-whaiti (little rock) page (79)and was saved thereby from death from the hands of his enemy.

This is the Proverb in regard to Maru and Rehua,

"The fish (slain) of Taki-o-te-rangi
In the battles of Maru and Rehua"

That is, these words duplicate the dispute between Maru and Rehua, and the war and battles which took place between them, and also it condemns the evil committed by Whare-paia (House shut) the descent of Tawiti-nui (great rat trap) who made war on the people of this world.

It was on account of the evil of Hine-nui-te-po (great daughter of night): that the battle Pakira nui (great bald) was fought.

And it was also an account of the evil Oranga-nui (great life) that the battle of Kewa was fought at Ruaki pouri (vomiting in the dark).

Maru chanted this sacred incantations at Toka-whiti (the rock overflowed) and at the Toka-Kanapu (shining rock) of Maru.

There are many Proverbs in respect to these Priests, but why write them down now on this part of this book, we will leave them for some other day (when we will write them down).

page (80)


Turi migrated to Pa-tea (fair Fort) and when he had landed there, he killed the people of the land, and when he had nearly exterminated them, he built a House there, and the water of a spring there, he said was like the water of a spring at Hawa-iki called Kimihia (seek for). Turi lived there but he became home sick for his home at Hawa-iki, so he drowned himself in the water (river) but at the time he committed suicide he had become very old.

(70A to follow this)

page (81)

The Origin from the Night

The pregnant cause the extension
The extension caused the exertion
The extension caused the thought
The thought caused the conscience,
The conscience caused the desire
And the medium originated
The medium lived with Rikoriko
(the glimmering of light)
And the Po (night) came forth,
The great night
The long night
The meeting in night
The drawing up the limbs in night
The very dark night
The black dark night
The murmuring night
The night not desirable
The night not divided
The night in which (they)
Go on, and stay in death.

There was not any day then, that is there was not any light in this world, nor were there any eyes then which could look in this world, all was darkness, and hence this saying

You are gone to night
And will even stay there.
The Kore (nothing) begat
The Kore-te-whiwhia
(the not obtained)
The Kore-te-rawea
(the not comely or gay)
And Hopu-tu
page (82) (the caught erect)
The Hau ora
(the air of life)
Hau-ora took
Te ata (dawn)
And begat Te rangi
(the sky)
And the Ao-marama
(the world of light)
E tu nei (now look on by us)
Rangi (day) floated
Over the land
And then look
Ata-tuhi (dawn of light)
And had, Te-marama
(the light of day)
And Rangi also look
Te werowero (the probing)
And begat Te-ra (the sun)
Which was thrown up
To be an eye for Rangi
And the sky looked comely
And had mighty power.
Te-rangi (the sky)
Took Atea (space)
And begat ata-tahi
(dawn of day)
(flashing dawn)
(grey dawn of day)
Te ata-i-hiku-rangi
(the dawn at the tail of heaven)
Rangi took Hawa-iki
page (83) And begat Taporapora
(mat to sleep on)
And Tauwhare-nikau
(overhanging suture)
And Kuku-paru
(draw mud together)
And Wawau-atea
(noise unchecked)
And Whiwhi-te-rangi-ora
(possessed of day of life)
Rangi took Papa tu a-nuku
(flat of the earth)
And had Ru nuku
(trembling earth)
Who had Ru-hoko
(of the exchange)
Who had Rua-tapu
(sacred pit)
Who had Rua tawhito
(ancient pit)
Who had Rua kai-po
(pit of eating at night)
Who had Ngae
(the heel)
And Ngae-nui
(great heel)
And Ngae-roa
(long heel)
And Ngae-pae
(heel laid across)
And Ngae-tuturi
(heel that is kneeling)
And Ngae-pepeke
(heel that is held up)
page (84) And Taha-titi
(fastened side)
And Rua-tapu
(sacred pit)
And Toe
(the remnant)
And Rauru
(hair of the head)
And Tama-raku-ora
(day of show of life)

The Growth from the Po (Night)

Grew in the Po (night)
Possessed in the Po (night)
Possessed in the Po (night)
Given from the Po (night)
And given to the world of light.
Water was created,
Earth was created,
Gods were created
Man was created
All these were
Created by the god,
The throwing down,
The falling
The lying
The kneeling
The limbs drawn up
The expanding (the limbs)
The being hid
The delight
The resin
The gum
page (85) The fruit
The filled
The then
The outer water
Day of light
The god
The sky now seen
Was taken by
Papa tu a nuku
(the flat of earth)
And begat Tane-whakarongo
(the listening male)
And Tu (god of war)
And Tanga-roa
(god of the ocean)
And Ru (god of earthquakes)
And Ou hoko (exchange)
(god of death or exchange life for death)
And Tao (cook)
And Putanga (come out)
And Tauira (disciple)
And Ao-marama
(day of light)
And Kore (nothing)
And Rei-te-ku
(rope of the chest)
And Te Kore te-wawae
(the not separated)
And Te-kore-te-whiwhia
(the not possessing)
And Te-kore-te-rawea
(the not becoming)
The not not having become nothing
And Te-whaia te kore
(not following nothing)
page (86) And Te kore iho
(the nothing downward)
Te Kore manu
(not any birds)
Te kore tapu
(nothing sacred)
Te kore tauira
(no Disciple)
Ko Te putanga
(the coming out)
Ko Tauira
(the Disciple)
(the world of light)
(the not slipping)
Kore te-whatu
(not any core)
Whatu-turu kumea
(steadfast core pulled)
Ko Whatu takaia
(the core lifted off the fire)
Ko Whatu-kaia
(the stolen core)
Ko Whatu ka-rewa
(the core melting)
Ka rewa ki tua maroke
(melting to dry)
Te Kore te whiwhia
(not possessed)
Te kore te rawea
(the not becoming)
Te-kore te oti atu
(the not remaining away)
Oti atu te Kore
(the nothing even away)
page (87) Te-hoki-ki-te-kore
(not returning the nothing)
Te mana te kore
(the nothing not effectual)
Te waia te kore
(the nothing not weary)
Ko Meru tukua a Reinga
(the goddess allowed to the spirit world)
Maru tau tukua a Reinga
(god of the invalid allowed to the spirit world)
Ka whakawaia anake ki te ao
(tempted to the world)
Ko ao tawhito
(the old world)
Ka pa te mate ki te tangata
(where disease takes hold of man)

(77A to follow this)

page (88)

Genealogy of Turi

Huia-rei (the breast of the Huia (neomorpha Gouldii) took Tai-hua-tahi (one propitious tide) and had (ka puta ko)
Rua-rangi (large animal) who took (ka moe i a)
Rongo wa-roa (heard of for some time) and had (tana ko)
Hatanga-i-mua (the flavour first) and (muri iho ko)
Rakau-maori (common wood) who took (ka moe i a)
Reinga-rangi (dart up to heaven) and had (ku patu ko)
Pua-mua (be born before) who took (ka moe i a)
Teina-tapu (sacred younger born) and had (tana ko)
Rongo-tea-tau-karihi (white kumara) (ipomoea batatas) of the year of much fruit or berries) who took (ka moe i a)
Runga-mea (south place) and had (tana ko)
Rongo te ari-ma-marama (news of the scarcity of the eleventh night of the moon) who took (ka moe i a)
Runga-tama (son of the South) who had (tana ko)
Turi (deaf) who had (ka moe i a)
Rongorongo (hear again and again) and had (ka putu ko)
Turanga i mua (stand in front) who had (tana ko)
Tama-tea (fair son) who had (tana ko)
Hiku-ao (end of day light) who had (tana ko)
Haere-ao (go in the day light) who had (tana ko)
Te-ihi (split, divide) who had (tana ko)
Te-mau (the influence) who had (tana ko)
Te-tapu (the sacredness) who had (tana ko)
Maru-tuna (worthless) who had (tana ko)
Maru-wehi (dreaded shade) who had (tana ko)
Maru aitu (shade of evil omen) who had (tana ko)
Maru-ariki (shade of the Lord) who had (tana ko)
Hiko rangi (shift from heaven) who had (tana ko)
Ra tua o te rangi (go behind the heaven) who had (tana ko)
Rangi-tau-mai-i-waho (day of lying at anchor out side) who had (tana ko)
Rangi-paki-iwi (day of patting bones) who had (tana ko)
page (89) Rangi hikaka (day of rashness) who had (tana ko)
Maru-aia (authority driven) who had (tana ko)
Rake-kowhera (scraped open) who had (tana ko)
Te Kora-tu (standing speck of fire) who had (tana ko)
Te-ao-makiri (false dawn of day) who had (tana ko)
Tautope (cut off) who had (tana ko)
Taipu (betroth) who had (tana ko)
Kaia (steal) who had (tana ko)
Rangi (sky) who had (tana ko)
Matao (cold) and (me)
Keo (Keho) (sleet or frost) and (me)
Herepu (seize)
Kaia had (tana ko)
Rere (flee) who took as her husband
Hoani hipango (black) and had (ka puta ko)
Hipango tamaiti (Hipango junior) and (me)
Wata hipango. To end this.

page (90)

The Gods and Rangi

The gods had been in existence (had lived) before Rangi had come forth (come into being) and the gods were of old before all other things. The gods are from Po (darkness or night) and they had long existed in the darkness; and after this (they were created) the gods of light (gods of this world) (such as) Whatitiri (thunder) and her associates Maru (power) and his associates, Tanga roa (assembled long, god of the ocean) and his associates, as also the gods of human diseases and sorrow (the gods of the flesh) that is those gods who gnaw with evil bite and power, and make man lame and disable him, and kill him, and the infant gods (gods who preside over and are of infants who die before they are born) which gods were created before man was made (created) and also the gods who smite man such as the Ru (au) moko (god of the Earthquake, or the god of the Lizard stream) and also (the god) Uruta (smite suddenly, sudden death) and his associates, these gods live up in the heaven above us, but their place of living at the time when they were first created, was up in the ten heavens, that is they were in the multitude of heavens, in the many heavens, that is those heavens which we speak of as a multitude, are the heavens above us in this world.

The first heaven above us, is a sky of chinks and cracks as twirls, and it is not dark, but looks light when gazed at from below here (from this earth) and below this first heaven is the path of the sun and moon, along which they fly, and the sky above this first sky is the second sky and is the sky of rain (or where rain collects) and of fog and of water are the heaven above, that is the third heaven, and is the heaven of wind, and the fourth heaven, is the heaven of spirits, (where spirits have their origin) and the fifth heaven is that of the world of day light, and the heaven above them are the heavens where great gods are and of the Ra (sun) and the tenth heaven is the heaven of Rehua ( ………. ) and is the best of all the heavens.

page (91)

Some of the Priests of our tribe of the Nga-ti-hau also say the first heaven is that of wind (or wind is kept there) and the second heaven is that of clouds (or clouds are kept there) and the third heaven is that where the blue sky is seen, that is, the heaven in the space near to this world, and the fourth heaven is called Papa, and was the origin or from it came this world. The fifth heaven is called the Lake and from it comes the rain, mist, and of all the water of this world. The sixth heaven is the sky of the gods, as are all the heavens beyond that even to the multitude of skies above it, to that of Rehua (split pieces off) which heaven (that of Rehua) is the best of all the heavens, and the uttermost heaven of all the heavens is the heaven which laid in silence on Papa (flat) and there is not any warmth between them which would cause herbs or grass to grow, yet there are herbs there, which are flat (or grows along the ground) and grows along the damp parts between them, and hence from this was originated this incantation, which is now chanted over a woman and man when they are separated (divorced):

Rise the skin
Divide the skin
Like the Bramble
Be the skin
As the Nettle
Be the skin
Nor sigh to
The beloved
Nor weep for
The beloved
Ocean god separate
Ocean god repeat
The charms
Go then to
The tide, the tide
Disconnect, nor
page (92) Sigh then nor
Dare then love
Nor sigh to
The beloved
Nor weep for
The spouse

As was also the incantation which Tawhaki (pluck off with fury) chanted as he climbed up to heaven, when he was in search of his daughter, this chant is also chanted to give life to an invalid, so that such an one may recover from the disease which is afflicting him or her, and the words of this incantation is from these numerous heavens, and the words are these:

Climb up Tawhaki in the first heaven
Obey o disease
Climb up Tawhaki in the second heaven
Obey o disease
Climb up Tawhaki in the third heaven
Obey o disease
Climb up Tawhaki in the fourth heaven
Obey o disease
Climb up Tawhaki in the fifth heaven
Obey o disease
Climb up Tawhaki in the sixth heaven
Obey o disease
Climb up Tawhaki in the seventh heaven
Obey o disease
Climb up Tawhaki in the eighth heaven
Obey o disease
Climb up Tawhaki in the ninth heaven
Obey o disease
Climb up Tawhaki in the numerous tenth heavens
Obey o disease
Adhere o spine
page (93) Adhere o spine
Captive o spine
Captive o spine
Lay hold of
The steep of heaven.

The first born of Rangi (sky) and Papa (flat) was Rongo-ma-tane (news of the male) which was the Kumara (ipomoea batatas) which originated from the face of Rangi (season) as that part of heaven was warm, and the kumara is a plant which will not grow in the cold.

After the creation or origination of the Kumara was that of Haumia (fern) that is the fern-root, which is called Aruhe and this grew behind, that is on the back of heaven. Fern is a weed that grows luxuriantly, and it grows and flourishes on land blown over and swept by storms, nor will it fade and shrink if the sun does not shine on it.

Next came Tane-mahuta (the male jumping god of the forest) who is the god, and the origin of trees, birds, moths, butterflies of this world.

Next came Tanga-roa (long breath) who was the origin of all fish, iguana and lizards.

The last was Tu mata uenga (man of the excited face) who was the origin of man.

Also the Priests of old say, Tiki (fetch) was one of these gods made when these gods were first created, and man came from Tiki, as the wife of Tiki who was called Ma-rikoriko (twinkling) was not born of a mother, but came out of the glow or hollow of the heat of this world, and Tiki and his wife had a daughter called Kau-ataata (swim in shadow).

Also Tu-te-ngana-hau (man of the blustering winds) was also one of the gods of the beginning, and he was the origin of evil, and wrong, accidents and death in this world, he and page (94)Tu-mata-uenga are like each other (in regard to evil doing) they each act with evil, but this god is the god of war and slaughter and quarrelling, and he is the origin of all battles in this world.

Tahu (spouse) was also one of the gods of the first creation, he is the god of good, of life, of joyful heart, and he is the origin of the kindness and goodness of a husband to his wife and offspring, and he is the cause of a mother being kind to her offspring and her spouse.

Tane (male) is also one of the gods of the first creation, and he is the origin of males or men, and also of male dogs, and male of birds. They are all called Tane (male) from him, and he is the origin of this name being given to them, and he is the power and origin of offspring coming into this world. He caused good to be acted towards Rangi (sky) and put the stars and clouds on Rangi (the sky) by which Papa (flat) looked with kindness on Rangi (sky) and he is the cause of woman looking with kindness on man, and hence it is said of the sky that it is "The House of Tane". Tane also originated the "Living water of Tane" (male), that is the lake where the Maori can bathe and come to life again when the moon each month dies, and hence the lake and its water are called "The living water of Tane". Tane is the parent of birds, and he caused the trees to grow, and his names are taken from his various employments, hence he is called Tane-tuturi (kneeling Tane) from the fact of his having drawn up his legs at the time he did not to separate Rangi and Papa.

He is also called Tane-pepeke (draw up the legs) from the fact of his drawing up his legs at the time he was stretched out so that he could push Rangi up, and put him away from Papa.

He is also called Tane-ua tika (Tane of the straight back bone) he goes in such an erect manner, and hence page (95)grow so straight, and stand so straight.

He is also called Tane te-wai ora (Tane of the living water) as he is the cause of the life of the moon being renewed when its faith in the lake which he made, and also of the trees, weeds and grasses, birds, animals, and insects of this world who live in health by drinking of fresh water.

He is also called Tane-mahuta (leaping Tane) the origin of this name is from canoes in which man paddles and voyages, as man leaps into canoes, and again leaps on shore, and man by the aid of canoes, arrives joyfully at this and at that (different) place, and is not wet by water, and man is as though he leaped over a path that had been carpeted so he crosses along over the sea. Also Tane is also spoken of as from the forest as trees are of the forest, and canoes, are of trees, and hence canoes are called Tane-mahuta (leaping Tane). Canoes are also called Te-riu-o-Tane (the stomach of Tane) (from the fact of the hold of a canoe being open to hold cargo), he got called Tu wai-rora (man of the powerless water) was (or is) the good of all fine (straight) trees of which to make canoes, that is the trees the Totara (podocarpus totara) and Kauri (darmara australis) and hence the canoe is also spoken of in the Proverb as "The narrow path of Tane" and "The daring of Tane". There are also Proverbs which speak of the bark of trees which are used to thatch houses, one is this "The man of the wind, the bark of the Kahika-toa (leptospermum scoparium) as a house in which Kahu-Kura (goddess of the rainbow) can live without being rained on also this Proverb says "The Ake (dodonia viscosa) and Kahika-tea (podocarpus dacrydioides) are the sinews of Tu-mata-uenga (the trembling face) which association is in respect to these weapons Tao (spear) and Hani (long spear with a carved tongue) and Waha-ika (fish mouth) (not unlike a battle axe with hawks feathers hanging from near the axe head).

Tane is also the parent or origin of birds, and the owl is his page (96)and hence that bird is said to be "The hidden bird of Tane" and this proverb is also spoken of in regard to the Kiwi (apteryx). Tane is also the parent of trees and the forest; as he took Mumu-whango (hoarse slight wind) and by her had the Totara tree, and he took Pu-whakahara (great origin) and had the Kahika-toa (leptospermum scoparium) and the Ake-rau-tangi, and he took Tu wai rore and had the Kahika-tea (podocarpus dacrydioides) and the Rimu (dacrydium cupressinum), and he took Ata-tangi-rea (gentle weep much) and had the Maire-rau-nui (one of the eugenia), and he took other wives, and had flapping offspring born into this world, that is he had his bird offspring, he also took Parauri (black) and had Tui (parson bird), and he took Papa (flat) and had the Kiwi (apteryx), and he took Haera-awaawa (go in the creek or ditch) and had the weka (aogdhomus australis).

(86A to follow this)

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Tiki (fetch) was the god who made man, and his is the image which is taken as that drawn or made for the likeness of man, when man was made. He (Tiki) went and obtained red clay and mixed it with his blood, and he made the pupils of the eyes, and he made the hands and feet, and he made the inner part of the mouth of the image he had made, and the effigy stood as a real (live) man.

Others of the Priests say that red clay was used in forming the effigy male by Tiki from which to make man and that the red ochre, or the red rust water of a swamp was used by Tiki to mix that clay and form a being like to him self, and this effigy stood as a living man, and hence Tiki called it "Tiki-ahua" (likeness of Tiki) and the name of the "Tiki" made of green stone and worn as an ornament by man was taken from this effigy made of him self by "Tiki" the god.

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Tama tea and his companions
and the origin of the name Putiki-whara-nui


All the tribes who occupy these Islands (of New Zealand) had their origin from Rongo-ka-ko (news of pouting) and Rongo-ka-ko migrated here from Hawa-iki (little gills) in the canoe called Horo-uta (fast-sailing past the shore) that is in the Taki-tumu (lift the King) and he landed at Turanga (standing) where he left his canoe Horo-uta, and he went by land, by the sea coast even to Ahu-riri (angry altar or altar of ill omen) where his lizard ran or escaped from him which was called Tapu-te-rangi (sacred day).

Rongo ka ko was father of Tama tea (fair son) and Tama tea went from Here-taunga, (predicted lighting) that is, from Ahu-riri over land towards the mountains at Rua hine (old woman) in company with Kahu ngunu (garment of a dwarf) and Kahu-ngunu was son of Tama-tea, and Kahu-ngunu returned when he had got as far as Ruahine at which place they two had set up a post, which was called Rakau-taonga (wood of property) and the cause of Kahu ngunu returning was that he saw the birds Karoro (sea gulls) flying over these mountains and crying as these birds ever do on the sea coast, and Kahu-ngunu felt melancholy at the sound of that cry (which reminded him of the sound he had so often heard in his days of youth on the sea coast) so he said to his father to Tama-tea "O old man, go on by your path, I will return from here because of the sorrow I feel in hearing the cry of the Karoro (sea gulls) who are crying for the mouth of the Ngaru-roro (sea of brain) creek".

Tama-tea asked his son "Do you feel a longing to our home?"

Kahu-ngunu-matangi-rau (garment of the dwarf on the hundred winds) answered and said "No, it is a mere sigh from my chest".

Tama-tea asked "Perhaps it is love you feel for our home, and you ought to go back" So Kahu-ngunu went page (99)back to Here-taunga, and Tama-tea went on his journey.

Tama-tea ascended a ridge of a mountain, where another of his lizards escaped which was called Poho-kura (acid stomach) which was a very great lizard. Another of his lizards called Puke-o-kahu (hill of garment) he still retained, and Tama tea went on, still carrying the lizard called Puke-o-kahu till he came to a creek called Moa-whanga (home of the Moa) which is a great creek or river, where he stayed to cook some food, after he had partaken of food and had satisfied his craving for something to eat, he covered the ashes of his fire, and he stuck the ends of his fire sticks up as posts at the creek or river, and hence the origin of these words "The ends of the fire brands of Tama-tea" and these fire brands were left as goblins, as Tama-tea was a Priest, and the fire was sacred by which food had been cooked for him, and the firewood by which that fire is made is sacred, and hence the ends of the ashes of his fine brands were sacred, and also this is why these fire brands being sacred, were put up by Tama-tea near the river to become goblins.

Tama-tea went on by the sea coast, and his companion in travel that is his dog went into the sea, and the dog became a sea god, and hence the voice like that of a dog barking heard out on the sea in summer time.

Tama tea continued his journey along the sea coast till he arrived at Whanga-nui (great harbour) where he sat down (stayed) to comb his head, and also to adorn himself, so that he might be comely looking when he went into the fort of the aboriginal natives of the land, so he put his hair up in knots on his head, and tied it up with the bark of the herb called whara ( __________ ) and hence the origin of the name of that place which is now called "Putiki-whara-nui-o-tama-tea" (the great knob of whara of the fair son) where he stayed for some time and then embarked in a canoe and poled up the Whanga-nui river, and when he had arrived at the cave Tara-roa ………. page (100)he threw the seed of the flax on to the cliff at that place, and the flax grew on the Kotukutuku (Kohutuhutu) fuchsia excorticata) and then poled on to O-maka (food thrown away) but as there were not any place to which he could fasten his canoe there, he went and twisted a rock which was in the middle of the river, to which he tied the painter of his canoe, where he laid at anchor: and hence the twist of the rock. On the following day he poled on up the river and landed at the usual place where canoes stay, and he went by land to Tau-po (wait at night) Lake where he got on board of a canoe, and went on in the Wai-kato (nipping river) and he went on to the fall, and continued to proceed, and he was carried by the current of the stream till he was in the ripple of the fall his canoe overturned, and all the people in the canoe were drowned with Tama-tea also, nor did one of them escape death.

The following are the names of the descendants of Tama tea,

Tama had Mahina-rangi (dim light of the sky) who took (ka moe i a)
Tauranga (lying at anchor) as her husband (hei tane mana)
And next born to Mahina rangi was (muri mai i a Mahina-rangi ko)
Rau-kawa (a sweet scented plant, used by the Maori to scent oil) and (ko)
Whakarere (left behind)

Tama tea had two wives (e rua wahine a Tama-tea) and Iwi-rau (many tribes) was the mother of Kahu-ngunu-matangi-rau (Ko Iwi-rau te whaea o Kahu-ngunu-matangi-rau) and Tama-iki-roa (son of the long consuming (me Tama-iki-roa) and Kahu-nui (great garment) (me Kahu-nui me) and Apa (company of people) who was the ancestor of the Nga-ti-apa who reside at Rangi-ti-kei (day of striding away).

The name which I give to Tama-tea, that is Tama-tea-pokai-whenua, is because he went round all the land of these Islands, even from the Au-pouri (dark smoke) (at the North Cape).

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The Pana-ri (Pane-iri)

Tanguru (gruff) was the chief of Kahu-ngunu, and was the ancestor of Aperahama, and the tribe of Pana-ri (push the screen aside) jostled (tried to rob) the Kahu-ngunu tribe of their land, so the tribe of Pana-ri who occupied the country in the Roto-atara (Lake of Tara (bravery)) made war on the Kahu-ngunu tribe. The block of land which caused this war, was occupied by both these tribes, and one of them wished to take possession of the whole, but as evil came from the act of taking possession a battle ensued, and an engagement took place at the Roto-a-tara, and the fort of the Roto-a-tara was taken and Tanguru the chief of that fort fled and escaped from the fear of the weapon of his enemy, and he embarked on a moki (raft) and he paddled away that he might cross over the Roto a tara Lake so that he might escape, but as he put on himself all his beautiful garments, that he might take them with him and so keep his valuables when he should escape from his enemy, but the raft turned over and he sank into the lake, and he was drowned, but his enemy saw him sink, so his enemy dragged for the corpses and the rou (hooks) by which he was sought caught in his garments and Tanguru was taken out of the lake, by the Kahu ngunu people, and his fine mats the Parawai, Topuri, Kaitaka, and Pake (d) were all taken by the Kahu-ngunu people, and hence the origin of the name of the Hapu (sub tribe) now known as Nga-ti-marau (the descendants of the forked up) which was given in remembrance of Tanguru having been dragged up by the Kahu-ngunu people.

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Ko Ruahine

The old woman called Ruahine (old woman) came over from Hawa-iki on a calabash, she sat on the neck of the calabash which is bent near to where the calabash is held to the vine on which it grows, and the name of this particular calabash is "Ngutu hue" (mouth of a gourd). And that sort of calabash grows the same shape to this day, and looks like the same as it did in the days when Ruahine came over on one of them.

Now that old woman called Ruahine was the progenitor of the Nga ti pou tama tribe.

Ruahine migrated from Hawa-iki, and came to the door of the house of Rua-maunu (pit of the bait) and the smell of smoke was smelt by the people in the house, and when they had seen the old woman they said "O what a smell there is from this old woman, she is all ………. of smoke" and she was grieved at the sneering remarks passed on her so she left and went else where, and arrived at O-tu-matua (the standing parent) where she took the head chief of that place as her husband, and she had offspring called Tai-nui (great tide) and the descendants of Tai-nui are the people of the Nga-ti-pou-tama tribe who live at Whanga-nui.