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The Ancient History of the Maori, His Mythology and Traditions. Nga-Puhi [Vol. X, English]

Chapter X

page (148)

Chapter X

The war of Nga-puhi, Hau-raki and Tau-po
tribes on the people of the Roto-a-tara fort


Tangi-te-ruru (the owl cries) went from Hau-raki (Thames) to Nga-puhi to obtain assistance to wage war on the Kahu-ngunu people, and when the war party of Nga-puhi arrived at the Thames, the body of warriors left the place and went by way of Tau-po (rest at night) and Pa-tea (fair fort) and the object of the Thames people for this war party was to get revenge for insults offered to them by some of their own people, and to give expression to their anger, they went on this war expedition. Some of the Nga-ti-whatua people of Kai-para joined this war party of the Thames people, as also did some of the Nga-ti-pehi and Nga-ti-upoko-iri, in order that these two sub tribes could obtain revenge for the death of one of their chiefs called Nahu (abundant) who was the father of Hine-i-paketia (daughter who was bruised) who had been killed and also for the evil which had come on the tribes on account of the war for the destruction of the posts and indicators put up by Wani-kau (only scraped) to indicate the prohibition, that the eels and ducks of all the lakes at Ahuriri were sacred for a time, but these warnings against trespass were ignored by Mau-tahi (held together), who burnt the indicating posts, at the same time he said such posts were the bones of Wani-kau, for which curse Wani-kau was very wrath, and he made war on Mau-tahi, but Mau-tahi was not conquered by him, so Wani-kau sent messengers to collect a war party to assist him, his spies went as far as Manga-wharau (branch creek of the house (shed)) at Wai-marama (clear water) and these messengers killed Manuwhiri (guests) the younger brother of Te-heuheu of Tau-po, and also Tawake (mend a hole in a canoe) of Tau-po and Rangi-mama (light day) the younger brother of Tu-roa (stand long) of Whanga-nui (great harbour).

When the war party who were besieging the fort at Roto-a-tara heard of the page (149)death of these chiefs by the people of that district, the Tau-po people left the besiegers and went back to Tau-po, and when the people of the besieged fort saw them departing, they called to Te-heuheu and said "O ho, so you go back with your grey head hanging down" but Te-heuheu lifted up his head, and waved his arms in the air, and this part of the war party went to Manga-whara (branch that was knocked) and attacked and killed the people who had killed the three chiefs belonging to the Tau-po people, with many other great chiefs of the Nga-ti-kahu-ngunu in the same attack, some of the attacked escaped and fled to the fort at Te-roto-a-tara, and the Tau-po people returned to their own homes at Tau-po, who when they had arrived there sent messengers to the Nga-ti-maru of the Thames, Nga-ti-rau-kawa, Nga-ti-mania-poto, and Wai-kato, and to Nga-ti-whatua of Kai-para and Nga-puhi also to Nga-ti-pehi and Nga-ti-tu-rumakina, of Tau-po, to Nga-ti-te-rangi-ita, and Nga-ti-rau-hoto and Nga-ti-te-rau-ponga-wheowhe of Tau-po who all assembled at Tau-po and came in a body to attack the fort at Roto-a-tara, they came by the forest road so that they should not be seen by any spies who might have been sent out. The war party came out at Rau-kawa having killed all who were met or lived on the road the war party had come. They attacked one fort in this journey and those in the fort had killed one called Te-ara-wai (path of water) the son of Tukorehu (plantago) who was killed by a stone thrower thrown by those in the Pa from a stage the besieged had built to defend themselves from a stage raised by the attacking party to stone the fort, and he had gone along the stage his people were building and had been killed there.

Te-heuheu went back home to Tau-po by the road that leads past Ahuriri (dam in a stream) and the page (150)Nga-ti-kahu-ngunu had put him and his party across the River there.

When all these tribes who had been called together by the Tau-po people arrived at Tau-po, the Nga-puhi section of this war party came back from the district to attack the fort at Te-pakake (the whale). [This party had passed that fort in their way back to Tau-po, and it was the people occupying the fort that put them across the River] at Ahuriri, to obtain revenge for the death of Te-ara-wai (path of water) who was killed by a stone in the attack on the Roto-a-tara, (lake of Tara).

At the time that the war party who had been led by the Tau-po people to attack the Roto-a-tara were away from the Ahuriri district after they had returned from that district, Te-pereiha went to the Pakake fort and requested the people in the fort to retire with him to Nuku-taurua (shift the canoe in which the net is carried) but they would not go with him, but he and his people went to Nuku-taurua, and the fort at the Pakake was attacked and taken by Nga-puhi and their allies, and Pereiha who was the chief of the Roto-a-tara pa when attacked by this same war party was not taken, and now he was also saved by his prediction in going to Nuku-taurua.

The name of the harbour (lake) of Ahuriri is Te-whanga-nui-a-rotu (the great harbour of rotu "rotu" to overcome by the power of incantations) and Ahuriri (dam) is the name of the mouth of that harbour (lake) and Here-taunga (bond of familiarity) is the name of the district around that lake (harbour).

Now let the origin of the name of the Roto-a-tara (lake of Tara) be given, as Tara first landed at Te-whanga-nui-a-tara (great harbour of Tara) that is at Port Nicholson, and there are many tales, and account page (151)about this being Tara.

In the days of ancient time, before Kahu-ngunu had come from the Nga-puhi to Ahuriri, and Kahu-ngunu came from the Au-pouri (dark soot) North Cape as he was born in that part, and when he came here he took to wife some of the women of this part of the land, that is he took the women of the Taki-tumu people and his descendants were called Nga-ti-kahu-ngunu, and the origin of this name Kahu-ngunu, that is according to what Nga-puhi people say it ought to be Kahu-unuunu (garment taken off). Kahu-ngunu was a very passionate man, [so the Nga-puhi people say] and when he was in a rage he did not wait to untie the fastening of his mat to take it off his body but dragged the mat up over his head, and threw it down on to the ground, thus he stood naked ready to fight.

But to return to the history, Tara lived at the Aute (Broussonetia papyrifera) [in the Napier district] near Here-taunga who was a very sacred man, and he was also a gourmand, and he eat great quantities of the fish, eels and ducks of the lakes, Te-roto-a-Tara (lake of Tara), Pou-kawa (tree planted at birth of a child) and Te-roto-a-kiwa (lake of Kiwa) as tasty morsels with his kumara (ipomoea batatas).

The lakes Te-roto-a-tara, and Pou-kawa, were where the wild ducks took up their abode and had their young, and these when fat were killed by the people for food for Tara and the eels taken in these lakes by the people in eel pots for the use of Tara were many, but the lake the Roto-a-kiwa (lake of Kiwa, wink) was where Tara washed and bathed, because he was sacred, and it would not be right for him to wash or bath in water where fish or eels or ducks were, as such were the food of man, and as such were cooked, it would be a curse on Tara to bathe in such water page (152)but by the incantations chanted by Tara over this lake, fish, eels or ducks could not be there, but I hear that Europeans have put eels and ducks in that lake, and it is also because the European has cultivated that district such things are now found in that lake, as have also the Pakura (Porphyrio melanotus) or Pukeko, located themselves on its banks.

But let the History of Tara be continued, in the days of Tara, when he lived in the Here-taunga district, the goblin Awa-rua-a-pori-rua lived in the Whanga-nui-a-tara district, (Port Nicholson) and this goblin with a companion determined to go on a journey and they went over land by way of Wai-rarapa (glistening water), and they eat men as they travelled, and Awa-rua-a-pori-rua (dog skin mat of the double chin) went and took up his abode in the lake Roto-a-tara, and lived on the fish, eels and birds (ducks) of that lake, and of course eat some of the dainty morsels that Tara had made up his mind that such were for himself only, and Tara was grieved at the theft of the goblin, so Tara determined to destroy the power and influence of that goblin, his enemy, so that the goblin might not continue to suppose that he had any right to any part of the good things of that lake, so Tara made war on the goblin, and as they battled, the goblin in writhing about dashed his tail, and thus swept the sand and gravel of the lake onto a bank in the middle of the lake, and thus filled up the cave in the lake in which the goblin lived, and hence the name of the sand bank thus formed was taken from the name of the goblin Te-awa-a-pori-rua (the creek of two wrinkles of fat round the chin) and the goblin left this lake and went back to his old page (153)home at Pori-rua (two attendants) in the Pae-kaka-riki (perch of the little green parakeet) at O-taki (the pacing up and down in making a speech).

At the time that Awa-rua-a-pori-rua, and his goblin companion went from Pori-rua, and went by the way of Wai-rarapa, when they arrived at Po-ranga-hau (night of increasing wind) they at that place saw the people of that district, who were the original inhabitants of this land, the people to whom these Islands (New Zealand) belonged, in the days before the Maori had not come to these Islands. This people were called Te-rae-moiri (the uplifted forehead) that is they were also called Te-upoko-iri (the lifted up head) which people made war on these goblins, and they killed the goblin companion of Te-awa-a-pori-rua, and Awa-a-pori-rua fled and went and lived in the lake Roto-a-tara. The people cooked and eat the goblin they had killed.

page (154)

The Pana-ri of the Roto-a-tara

The supreme chief of the Nga-ti-kahu-ngunu was Tanguru (deep toned voice) who is progenitor of many of the great ones of this day, some of whom live in the Aute (paper mulberry) at this day.

The sub tribes of the Pana-ri (push the break wind or on side) in the district of the Roto-a-tara (lake of Tara) as also did the descendants of Kahu-ngunu in the same district. These tribes each dug the fern root, panahi (convolvulus roots) and caught fish, and put eel pots into that lake to catch eels, and also caught ducks with nooses in the same district, and the Kahu-ngunu people became angry with the Pana-ri, and the original owners of the land the Rae-moiri (forehead lifted up) joined with the Pana-ri people, who fought with the Kahu-ngunu sub tribes, the claim to the land was the cause of this war, and Kahu-ngunu people wished to turn the Pana-ri people out of the district, with the old owners of the land, and take the land for themselves, and a Pa (fort) was built in the Lake Roto-a-tara, and this fort was attacked and taken, and Tanguru the leader of those who occupied the fort fled from the Pa occupied by Kahu-ngunu, and went away in a moki across the lake from the fort, but as he was laden by his fine garments, the Para-wai, Kai-taka, and Topuri, the moki raft turned over with him in the water, and his mats being heavy he sank, and his people saw his sinking, and they took a marau (eel grapnel) and dredged for him, and the marau caught his garments and they recovered his body and buried it in the sacred caves with those of the ancient dead, and the sub tribe who recovered him with the marau were called "The Marau" who are so called to this day.

The Pana-ri and the Rae-moiri fled from the district and Kahu-ngunu took the district, but some of the descendants of these two tribes still claim some of that district, who still reside in that district.

page (155)


There was a battle waged by the Pana-ri (push the break wind or on side) against the Kahu-ngunu, on account of claim to land, but the land belonged to them both, and when the Ngai-ti-kahu-ngunu arrived at the Roto-a-tara, a battle was waged, and the Pa (fort) was taken, and those of the Pa fled in canoes and the canoes were upset and Tanguru sank, and Kahu-ngunu saw that Tanguru (deep bass voice) had sank because of the weight of his garments the Para-wai, and Ihu-puni they took maraus (eel fork or grapnel) and caught his clothing with the grapnel, and pulled his body mats and all into a canoe, and cut him up and cooked and eat him, and his sub tribe were at once called the Nga-ti-marau (the descendants of the grapnel) from the grapnel by which his body was recovered.

Tanguru was related to some of the Pana-ri tribe.

page (158)

Extract from "Te Wananga"

The Waikato, Thames, Nga-puhi and Tauranga people collected at Taupo and returned to get revenge for the death of Arawai, and attacked Pakake Pa. Pareiha having heard of the brewing storm, came to Napier and asked the Pakake people to go with him to Nukutaurua but they refused. He took with him that part of the Ngati kahungunu under him, and went to Nukutaurua.

After Pereiha had left, the people in Te Pakake Pa did all they could to strengthen their position, and, if possible, repel the attacking party, who had come to revenge the death of Te Arawai, who was killed at Te Roto-a-Tara Pa by a stone thrown at his head.

The Pakake Pa was an island in the bosom of the Ahuriri lagoon, or that part of the water which was immediately inside of the opening of the mouth of the Ahuriri River, and at high water was surrounded by the tide over which not any person could wade, but at low water, along a sandy ridge which ran from the shore (now occupied and known as the north end of Milton road, at which time there was a Maori settlement) a man could ford the water that divided the island from the main land. Between the island Pakake Pa and what now is the Spit was a deep pool or basin. On the Spit point the war party were collected, and from this they occasionally attempted at night to surprise the people in the Pa. Old Kawa-tini was in the Pa at this time, and for weeks the attacked were able to keep their enemy at bay. One night some of the young men of the Pa took a swift sailing canoe, and left the Pa, pulling up the north branch of the Ahuriri lagoon. Passing the islands which stand in the Petane portion of the lagoon, they arrived at the headland near the head of that lagoon, and whilst there heard from the voices of some of the enemy that on the morrow an assisting war party were to arrive by way of the present locality known as Petane, and make an attack on the Pa from the north-west. These young men returned to the Pa, and collected all the volunteers they could from the Pa, and returned and laid in wait for the coming enemy. At daybreak the attacking party appeared, and were confronted by the young men of the Pa. Kawa-tini was in the party of young men, as they had laid an ambush of their party in the scrub at the head of Petane Bay. Kawa-tini being in the ambush when the assault was made, he met face to face an old and acknowledged brave. But youth and ambition overcame his doubts. Kawa-tini, from behind a bush attacked his enemy, and, being agile, he parried the thrusts of the old warrior, and by dint of muscular agility he overcame him. When the young men retired to their Pa in the glee of victory, the enemy on the east side of the Spit decamped, and passing over what is now known as the Shakespere road, they travelled on to where Farndon now stands, and there with the raupo (typha augustifolia) collected there made rafts called moki, which they pulled out by the mouth of Te Ngaruroro River, paddled along the shore toward the Bluff, and entering the mouth of the River attacked the Pakake Pa.

The attack was made at the break of day. The scene was beyond description. After the battle could be seen the dead and dying scattered all over the side of the Pa and in the water the bodies of infants and children could be seen tossed up and down by the waves of a slightly rough sea, and the aged rooting up and down on the beach by the ripple of the shore. Those who could escape fled inland to the Ruahine Ranges; and the enemy having waited as long as they thought fit retired home.

Kawa-tini has had five different names by which he has been known in different periods of his life. The name by which he was known as a boy, and which was given to him by Maori baptism, was Tunui, a whale god, which was the name of his grandfather. The second was Kawatini, the name of his grandfather on his mother's side. The third was Te Kaka, the large dark brown parrot called by the Maori Kaka. How he obtained this name was from the death of the great chief of the Ahuriri called Kauru, who died from the effect, it is said, of eating some Kaka birds which had been bewitched by the noted Maori priests Moeroa, by the order of Meke, the head chief of Te Wairoa. The sister of Meke, called Kohia, was wife of Kauru, and the brother of Kohia, called Haronga, was invited by Kauru to stay with him at the Pakake Pa. The boy had not been there long before he was taken very ill, and it was said he was bewitched by some of the people of Kauru. Kauru sent him back home to Te Wairoa, and those who took him, on their return brought a basket of cooked birds called Kaka from Meke for Kauru. It is said these birds had been cooked and then bewitched by Meke's priest, called Moeroa. Kauru partook of these birds and died. Kawa-tini was then called Kaaka, to keep this in remembrance. Kawa-tini's fourth name was Takawahie, from the circumstance of an elder relative of Kawa-tini, called Harapa, who in the attack on the Pakake Pa was killed, and falling into a canoe in which there was some wood kept for firewood, hence Kawa-tini was called Takawahia (Fall-on-firewood), to keep this in remembrance.

page (410)

Extract from "Te Wananga"
Nga Rongo Korero

Te Kupu A Tetahi Mema O Te Paremata,
He Mea Nana, He Tino Tohunga
Rawa A Kawana Kerei

He kupu enei na te Oriwa, te mema o te Paremata, i kiia e nga iwi o Tanitana kia tu aia hei mema mo te turanga a te Ranaka, i kii hoki a te Ranaka kia mutu tana ta te Ranaka tu hei mema. A he kupu enei kupu na te Oriwa i te wa i tu ai aia ki te korero ki ana Pakeha pooti o Tanitana. I mea a te Oriwa, he tika ano kia korero ahau i aku whakaaro e mohio nei mo nga mema o te Paremata nei kua tu hei Kawanatanga. A ko te tino tangata, ko te upoko o te Kawanatanga, ko Kawana Kerei, he tino tohunga rawa a Kawana Kerei ki nga mohiotanga katoa, he tino tohunga aia ki nga mahi nui mo te iwi, he matau rawa tana ki nga mea e ora ai te iwi, a e tino marama ana aaua whakaaro ki te whakahaere i nga mea e puta ai he nui, he ora, a he pai mo te iwi katoa. He tangata a Kawana Kerei, kua kite, a kua mahi, a kua mohio ki nga mahi nui katoa o tenei mahi o te mahi Kawanatanga mo te iwi. He nui ona tau i tu ai hei Kawana, he nui ona tau i mahi ai i nga mahi mana nui a te Kuini, a kua kitea katoatia e ia nga he, me nga tika, a kahore he mea i ngaro i aia, koia ahau i mea ai, mana rawa ano e ora ai te iwi. Kahore he tangata o nga motu nei i penei te mohio me Kawana Kerei, he tini te iwi he mano nga mohio, ko Kawana Kerei te tino ariki o nga mohio katoa. A tetahi pai o Kawana Kerei, he aroha nui nona ki nga iwi o enei motu, he tika no ana mahi, he rangatira no ana whakaaro, he ata whakarongo nona ki nga korero a te iwi koia i kiia ai, ko Kawana Kerei te tino matua pono o nga iwi o nga motu nei. He tangata a Kawana Kerei, e tautoko ana i te tutua kia tu ai te mokai i te wa o te ora i te kai, a i te mea e ki ai te mokai, ka whiwhi aia i te oranga mona. A e rua nga hoa o Kawana Kerei, i haere atu aua Pakeha i konei, a he tino tangata pai aua mema a koutou kua tu nei hei hoa mahi Kawanatanga kia Kawana Kerei A kahore he Pakeha i ko ke atu, e pera te maia, me te tika, e rite ki aua mema a koutou kua tu nei hei hoa ma Kawana Kerei i te Kawanatanga. Tena atu ano etahi hoa ano a Kawana Kerei, he mema era no etahi wahi o nga motu nei, a he kore no tatou e kite, a e rongo ki aua mema i kore ai tatou e tino mohio ki aua mema. Otiia he tino tangata aua mema hoa ano a Kawana Kerei. A ko Te Hiana e rongona nei, he tangata a Te Hiana, e tino whakapono ana te Maori ki aia, i te tika hoki o ana whakahaere tikanga. A he Pakeha a Te Hiana e tino mohio ana ki te reo Maori, me nga tikanga Maori, me a te Maori mea e rapua nei, kia ora ai te iwi Maori. A he nui noa atu ta raua mahi ko Kawana Kerei i oti nei i a raua mo te iwi Maori. E mea ana ahau ma Kawana Kerei raua ko Te Hiana e mutu ai te nui o te he e peehi kino nei i nga iwi Maori, a e kore ai he he a te Maori raua ko te Pakeha, a nga tau e haere ake nei. He tika ano, e kiia ana e nga mema e he nei kia raua, he mahi iti te mahi a Kawana Kerei ma. Otira taihoa, kia pehea ake ranei nga marama ka kite ratou i te pai o te mahi kua oti nei ia Kawana Kerei raua ko Te Hiana. Koia ahau i mea ai, ki te mea ka tu ahau hei mema, hei hoa pu ano ahau mo Kawana Kerei. He pai hoki, he tika hoki no te tikanga a Kawana Kerei e mahi nei mo nga iwi, koia ahau i mea ai, ka tautoko pono ahau, i nga tikanga, me nga mea katoa e kiia ana e Kawana Kerei, mo te iwi, he mohio pu noku, kei a Kawana Kerei te ara marama e puta ai nga iwi ki te ao marama, ki te ora, a ki te noho pai, i nga wa e haere ake nei. Umere ana te iwi ki awa kupu nei a Te Oriwa.

Sir G. Grey an able man

Mr Richard Oliver, who has just been returned for Dunedin City, in place of Mr Larnach, in the course of his speech to the electors at Dunedin made the following remarks on the personnel of the Ministry:

—"We have at the head of this Ministry Sir George Grey— an able man, with a larger experience in politics and statecraft than has been enjoyed by any man amongst us, to which he unites a sincere love for New Zealand, a unblemished character, spotless honor, and extremely liberal opinions. We have as his colleagues our two present city members amongst others, and of those two I would say, you might search New Zealand from north to south and you would not find two better representatives than we have in them. He has other colleagues of whom we have less knowledge, but who can compare favourably with the members of any Ministry we have lately seen. In Mr Sheehan we have a man trusted by the Maoris, well acquainted with Maori habits, manners, thought, and tradition—a man who, with his chief Sir George Grey, has been able to effect very much in that direction. It strikes me that we have seen the last of Maori troubles. Of course the opponents of Ministry make little of the efforts which these gentlemen have been making quite recently towards a settlement of old standing disputes, but it strikes me that we shall see those efforts bear good fruit in the future—and not a very distant future either—(Applause.) This being my opinion of the Ministry you will not be surprised to learn that I propose, if you do me the honor of electing me, to give the Ministry a general support. (Applause.) Their policy, so far as it has been sketched before us, commends itself to my understanding and to my sympathy. I will not promise to give an unhesitating and thorough-going support to this Ministry or any other Ministry."—(Applause.)

Nga tikanga a Ruhia mo ana mahi he ki enei
whenua, mei whawhai raua ko Ingarangi

He kupu mai enei na te kai tuku waea mai, a ma aua kupu nei e kitea ai e nga Maori, nga take e raru ai tatou i te iwi Ruhia, mei kore nga tikanga, o te Rongo-mau a Ruhia kia Take, e mahia e te Kawanatanga o Kuini, kia kore ai he whawhai a Ingarangi kia Ruhia.

Koia nei nga kupu a tetahi Pakeha, i tuhituhi mai ai i Haina, o Mei, 20, 1878. He nui noa atu te mahi a te iwi Ruhia ki te mea i tona kainga i Watatoke hei Pa, a he aami tonu tana i te hoia hei noho, kua tae tenei ki te tekau ma rima, mano hoia hua noho i reira a e wha kaipuke manuwao kei reira e tu ana, he mea hoki kia he rawa ake te he a Ruhia kia Ingarangi. Kua whai tangata aia hei huaki i nga kainga a te Pakeha i te moana i Hawaiki nei. Otira he nui ano hoki te noho mohio o matou o te iwi Pakeha i enei kainga o tatou o te iwi a

Note: Maori text is continued on following page of J White's manuscript (crossed out).

Extract from: Page 156 "Te Wananga" (407)

(Saturday, August 17, 1878)

page (156 English) (407 Te Wananga)

War at Roto-a-tara

The first war in which Kawa-tini was engaged was at the lake Roto-a-Tara. This lake is in the Aute district, in the Province of Hawke's Bay, and is about two miles south-west of Te Aute College. The country on the south is high and rolling hills; on the west is an island-like portion of land surrounded by a bog; between this and these hills is a creek, which is the outflow of water from the lake communicating with the Waipawa River. This lake is in extent about 200 acres, in which, and on the north side, is situated the island called "Te-Awa-a-Pori-rua," on which was built a Pa called "Roto-a-Tara." This Pa was occupied by various sub-tribes of Nga-ti-kahu-ngunu at the time about which we are now to relate the wars of that period. At three different times this Pa had to withstand the attacks made on it by tribes from a distance. About 60 or 65 years since, in the days of Kawakawa, who was chief of this part of the Ahuriri district, and who was head chief of the party who occupied this Pa, a party of the Ngati-paoa tribe of the Hauraki Natives of the Thames, in the Auckland Province aided by a war party of Nga-puhi from the Bay of Islands who had been asked by the Ngati paoa to assist them to obtain revenge for some of their people who had been murdered, made a raid into this district. Family feuds at home in the Thames, for which they durst not attack each other, prompted them to revenge such family quarrels on others to slake their vengeance, which gave rise to this war party.

They came by way of the Upper Thames, through Patetere, crossed by the south-west of Taupo, sending a scouting party by the east side of the Lake Taupo, and following on the west slope of the Ruahine Range, passed through the gorge made by the Manawatu River, and came out on the plain near the Ruataniwha, killing all they met, and attacked the Pa on this lake (Roto-a-Tara), at which time nearly all the male population of the Pa were on the East Coast, fishing; near Waimarama, where the Kahungunu had a settlement to which they went at the spring time of the year to collect fish for winter store for this Pa. After a brave but short resistance the chief Kawakawa was killed with all the old men and every one of the then occupants.

The Ngatipaoa and Nga-puhi came on them by stealth, and by making mokis or raupo rafts, they passed across the lake over page (157 English) (408 Te Wananga)to the island Pa at night, and killed all in it. The war party returned home by way of Petane (north of Napier) killing all on their way.

This war was returned by some of the Hawke's Bay tribes, who vented their vengeance on the tribes living in the intermediate country between Hawke's Bay and the Thames.

About ten or twelve years after this war, a chief of Kahungunu named Nehu, died of old age. He was father of the present chief woman Hineipaketia, and to honor the dead, the chief (on whom devolved the honor of performing all the rites to the dead) called Wanikau, ordered all the eels, fish, and birds in or on the lakes Roto-a-Tara, Roto-a-Kiwa, and Poukawa to be sacred, and to give warning to the people. Wanikau put posts up which were besmeared with red ochre near each lake. These were the rahui, or the prohibition or tapu. These orders did not accord with the wish or gourmand desires of another chief of Kahungunu called Mautahi who felt that his appetite would be checked by want of this sort of food whilst the rahui lasted, who broke the posts down and burnt them, at the same time he cursed Warikau by saying the posts he was burning were the bones of Wanikau. This tapatapa or curse so enraged Wanikau that he left his own home and went to Taupo, where he gained the assistance of the tribes Ngatituwharetoa, Ngatitepehi, and Ngatiteupokoiri. These tribes came by way of the mountain roads, and killed the first people near Waipawa. They laid siege to the Pa Te-Awa-o-Porirua, on the Roto-a-Tara, but not having gained any advantage, the Taua (war party attacking) left a body of men to watch the Pa while the rest of the Taua went to Maungawharau, a forest on the coast near Waimarama, a fishing kainga of the Roto-a-Tara people. They attacked the fishing village, or kainga, but having been worsted, and having lost Manuwhiri, brother of Heuheu, Tawake, head chief of Taupo, and Rangimanawa, brother of Pehi Turoa, of Whanganui this party retired and returned to those who kept guard over the Pa in Roto-a-Tara.

When the main body heard of their defeat at the fishing village of Maungawharau, Heuheu, being the leader of the war party, gave orders to raise the seige and return to their own country. The order was obeyed on the following morning. Those in the Pa had heard of the battle and defeat of the Taua at Maungawharau. Te Heuheu was a grey headed man. When the Taua rose and were leaving the post they had occupied in the seige, the people of the Pa with their chief seeing them departing, called from the Pa, "O, ho, tena hoki to upoko hina te tau haere na." "Ha, ha, so you bow your grey head down as you depart." Heuheu did not turn round, but put his right hand out behind him and clawed the air, an answer to the taunt which did, as language could not say more, "I will hold in my hand the insult offered, and will abide my time." The Taua and Heuheu went direct to Maungawharau, where a pitched battle took place, at which no doubt the insult and the death of the three head chiefs on the last attack gave the Taua spirit, as they gained a complete victory and killed a great number of the head chiefs and warriors of the Ngatikahungunu tribe, where the Taua stayed to eat the killed, when they afterwards returned home by way of Ruahine Range. A few who escaped from the battle got back into the Roto-a-Tara Pa, and told the tale of death. The Pa from this time was kept in good repair, the timber for which was at once obtained from the Aute forest.

When Te Heuheu arrived at home in Taupo, he sent messengers to the tribes Ngatimaru, of the Thames, Ngatiraukawa, of Maungatautari, Ngatimaniapoto (Rewi's people), Rauparaha had not migrated to Kapiti at this time), and the Waikato tribes, Ngatituwharetoa, Ngatipehi, Ngatiteurumakina of Taupo, Ngatiterangiita, Ngatirauhoto, Te Pauponga Wheawhe of Taupo, and Nga-puhi who were with the Thames people at that time, which met at Taupo, and came by way of the mountain roads, where they could not be seen, coming out at Waipawa and Raukawa, where they killed all the people taken by them.

Pareiha was now head chief of the Roto-a-Tara Pa. He was a man of great ability, and a brave chief. He, with the people in the Pa, defended it bravely for three months, and not till the storming party had built a bridge from the east bank of the lake all the way across to the island Pa, could any hand to hand fight take place. The timber to build the bridge was obtained by the Taua in the Aute forest. Pareiha ordered a puwhara (a timber tower) to be built in the Pa, to be raised above the bridge or kahupapa, from which they in the Pa could throw stones and spears at the storming party.

Te Arawai, son of Tukorehu, chief of Tauranga, had his head broken by some stones thrown at him by the people of the Pa from the puwhara. The Pa resisted as long as they could till the storming party threw fire from the bridge and set fire to the huts in the Pa. Pareiha collected the people on the south-west of the Pa and waited till the fire had burnt all the north-east side of the fortifications, and when the storming party came on from the bridge, he led his people on in a furious attack, and drove the enemy into the lake, where the battle was so fierce that hundreds of the enemy and his people killed each other and sank in the water to rise no more. On the night of that day Paraiha led his people across the lake on rafts, and landed on the south side, and then fled to the coast near to Porangahau, the enemy having remained to take the dead which were found in the water to eat them, and bury their own dead. All the common people of the storming party were allowed to remain in the lake, while the chiefs heads and bones were taken home. To this day bones of the dead may be seen in the lake. All the tribes went back to their own homes by way of the mountain roads by which they had come, but Te Heuheu came by way of Pakipaki and Napier, and was entertained by that part of the Kahungunu tribe who occupied Te Pakake Pa in the Ahuriri harbor, the site of the present railway shed at the Spit, at Napier,

Extract from "The Maori Messenger"

page (11) (161 English)

could contrive or effect, and the form of his beloved son was removed from his sight, force was resorted to to prevent his terminating his own existence.

Te Kani being anxious for a successor to his rank and possessions took to wife the daughter of a Chief of his own tribe, who had been married a few months previously but separated from her husband. The friends of the latter immediately on hearing this sent threatening and insulting messages to their Chief, and expressed their determination to seek satisfaction for the affront. The Uawa River alone intervened between the pas (forts) of the belligerents, and every preparation was made for war. Te Kani visited in person the villages to the south of Tolaga to recruit his army, while the Ngatiwhakamara sent messengers northwards to collect their friends. In vain the Missionary interposed and used all his influence to allay their excitement, and settle the matter by arbitration. At length the day on which the attack on the Ngatiwhakamara was to be made drew near; for true to his chiefly and chivalrous qualities he scorned to take advantage of an unprepared foe, and gave them time to fortify and provision their pa. The evening before was spent as usual by the contending parties; some vaunting of their courage and the deeds of daring they would perform on the morrow; others bidding farewell to the light of day, their relatives and friends;— while startling and loud, ever and anon the cry of the sentinel broke upon the ear. The short summer night was passing swiftly away, and dawn was drawing near, when the Missionary received a message from Te Kani that if the Ngatiwhakamara would consent to leave their pa and retire to some distance, he would allow them to do so unmolested. This unexpected proposal they gladly availed themselves of, and soon after day light a long and somewhat subdued band of warriors issued from their pa, laden with their property, and retired to the Karaka; Te Kani unwilling to lacerate the wounded pride of his rebellious people retired himself from his pa, and never occupied it again.

In person Te Kaniatakirau was tall and commanding, his countenance open and intelligent, and his face fully tattooed. He was always attired in European clothing, except on state occasions, when he wore the dress of a Maori chieftain. He possessed a number of fine horses, one of which, his favourite steed, he presented to Mr McLean on the occasion of that gentleman's first

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interview with him. Strongly averse to begging in any shape, he liberally rewarded anyone who made him a trifling present; and in order to check the rudeness of his people would rarely enter or partake of a meal in the houses of the European settlers. His kindness was almost proverbial, and he has on more than one occasion not only feed and clothe European travellers, but even mend with his own hands their wayworn and tattered garments.

European travellers have lost one of their best friends, on the East Coast. He was most attentive to all their wants and requirements, and scrupulously careful that none of his people should demand anything from them when visiting his place. On one occasion he discovered that a pocket knife had been stolen by one of his slaves, or unintentionally left behind by a traveller at his pa; this he carefully preserved until he found an opportunity of restoring it to its owner. He frequently interposed to prevent Europeans from being robbed or ill treated; and was truly a most unostentatious Chief, his good acts, unlike those of many of his countrymen, being proffered without any expectation of recompense or reward. Among the tribes over whom he possessed any influence he strenuously exerted himself to prevent feuds and quarrels; and his name will long be remembered as the promoter of peace, and an hospitable friend to all who knew him.

Of the circumstances attending his death we know but little. He died at Whangara, his favourite residence; and was mourned over by a large body of his countrymen. His death will be deeply regretted by all his acquaintances; while many to whom he was personally unknown, have oft times heard his far famed name, of his generous qualities, and that he was by rank and descent one of New Zealand's greatest chieftains.

Note: Te Wherowhero - 2 paragraphs (crossed out in manuscript) Reference - Page 162 English, The Maori Messenger (12)

Extract from "Te Karere Maori"

page (11) (177 Maori)

ko te tamaiti o tana wahine matua. Otira he tama ahua mate, ahua ngoikore, kore rawa i rite ki tana matua te ataahua. Ka tekau ma waru pea nga tau o taua tamaiti ra ka mate; a kore rawa i ahua marama ake te mata o te Kaniatakirau i taua ra a mohoa noa nei. Nui atu te pai o te urupa i nehua ai taua tamaiti ana; tini te tangata i haere mai ki te tangihanga; otira ka ngaro te ahua o tana tama i oha ai ia, na te ringa tangata ia i pupuri, penei kua mate ia i a ia ake ano, i te whakamomori hoki ki te tupapaku.

Ka mate tenei ka nui haere te hiahia o te Kani ki tetahi tamaiti hei whakakapi i tona turanga, hei tukunga iho ano hoki mo tona ingoa; kati, tango ana ia i te tamahine o tetahi o nga rangatira o Uawa, hei wahine mana. Kua moe ia taua wahine i te tane, marena rawa, otira kua wehea i tana tane. No ka rongo nga whanaunga o taua tangata, ehara ka anga ka taunu, ka whakatoi, ki to ratou rangatira, ka mea kia whawhaitia. Ko te awa anake o Uawa hei wehi i nga pa erua: tu ana te tahi i tera tara wahi, tu ana tetahi i tenei taha; a ka timata te taiepa i nga pa. Ko te Kani i ahu whaka-te-tonga ki te whakaoho i ana tangata; ko Ngatiwhakamara ia, i tono karere ki nga kainga o te tahataha, ahu mai ki Waiapu nei, ki o ratou whanaunga kia whanake hei apiti mo ratou. Tohe noa, to ratou Minita kia whakamutua te pakanga, kia whakaritea marietia; kati, no hea e rongo. Nawai a, ka tata mai te ra e tauria ai te pa o Ngatiwhakamara;—kahore hoki te tu rangatira ia te Kaniatakirau e mea kia patua kuwaretia te tangata,—waiho marie e ia kia hanga i te pa, kia tari kai mai mo nga ra o te riri. I te ahiahi i mua tata ake o te huakanga ka peratia me nga tauanga o mua mai: ko etahi e whai korero ana mo te toa, mo te kaha ki te riri apopo; ko etahi e poroporoaki ana ki te ao marama, ki o ratou whanaunga, ki o ratou hoa; a he mea ano ka oho te mauri o te tangata i te waha o te kai-whakaaraara. Ka whakapahure te po, ka tata ki te awatea, ka tae mai te karere o Te Kaniatakirau ki to ratou Minita ki te ki mai, mehemea ka whakaae Ngatiwhakamara kia whakarerea to ratou pa kia hoki ki o ratou kainga e kore ia e pupuhi ki a ratou. Marama tonu o ratou ngakau i taua kupu; a, awatea rawa ake ka puta ki waho te tira me o ratou pikaunga taonga, kakaku, aha noa iho, ka heke ki te Karaka. Ko te Kani ano hoki i whakarere i tona pa, kihai hoki ia i mea kia whakamamaetia nga ngakau o ana tangata, a mahue rawa i a ia te noho i reira.

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page (12) (178 Maori)

He tangata roa a te Kani, he tu rangatira, he tangata ataahua, he moko tukupu. Mau tonu ia ki te kakahu Pakeha; otira ka tu ki te whai korero, ki te runanga ranei, ka mau ki nga kaka o te rangatira Maori. He tini ona hoiho. Ko tetahi o enei, ko tana i tino pai ai, i hoatu e ia ki a Te Makariui i tona haerenga tuatahi kia kitei a ia. Nui atu tona whakarikarika ki te tangata kurutete, a utua nuitia ana e ia te tangata hoatu mea ki a ia. Kahore hoki ia i pai kia kai i roto i te whare o nga Pakeha noho i taua kainga, kei waiho hei tauira mo te tini o ona tangata. Puta ana te rongo o tana atawhai ki nga iwi katoa; he tini ana mahi whangai me te whakakakahu i te Pakeha rawakore; a he mea ano ka tuitui i o ratou weweru.

Kua ngaro i a ia te tino hoa pai o nga Pakeha ki aua wahi. He tangata whakaaro nui hoki ia mo ratou, he tangata atawhai; tia ki tonu hoki ia i te Pakeha kei murua, kei hengia ranei e tona iwi. Kotahi mea i ta haetia e te tangata, na te Pakeha haere. Rongo rawa a te Kani ka mau ki taua maripi, ka rongoa; uia ano ka rongo ia kitetahi tangata e haere ana ki te kainga o taua Pakeha, hoatu ana e ia, kia whakahokia atu ki tetangata nana te mea. Arai tonu ia i te Pakeha kei hengia e te tangata Maori; a ko tana pai tenei, kihai ia i rapu ki te utu mo tana atawhai me te tini o te tangata e tono nei. Nui atu tana pehi i te tutu, i te totohe o nga iwi e uru ana ki a ia; a era e puta nui te ronga o tona atawhai, o tana whakatupu i te maunga rongo, o tana aroha ki nga tangata katoa i mohio ki a ia.

Kahore i ata rangona nga korero o tona matenga. I hemo ia ki Whangara, tana kainga i pai ai ia; a tini noa atu nga tangata i hui atu ki reira ki te tangihanga. E nui te pouri o ratou katoa i mohio ki a ia, mona ka mate; a ko ratou kihai i kite i a ia i rongo ki tona pai ki tona nui,—te mea hoko ia tetahi o nga tino rangatira nui o enei motu.

Note: Te Wherowhero - 2 paragraphs (crossed out in manuscript) Reference - Page 178 Maori, Te Karere Maori (12)

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page (9) (159 English)

Life and wars of Te-kani-a-takirau
and Nga-puhi

(Nga-i-porou by C O Davis)

About eighty years since Captain Cook first touched at Turanganui, in Poverty Bay, he was attacked by a band of warriors, who rejected his overtures of peace and compelled to return to his ship. Hopeless of being able to establish peaceful relations with this people, he sailed Northwards to Tolaga Bay, where he was received with every mark of friendship and hospitality by Te Amaru the principal Chief of that part of the country, and the father of Te Kaniatakirau. This kindly feeling towards Europeans, and hospitality to all comers was a leading feature in Te Kani's character.

Te Kaniatakirau was the principal Chief of the District lying between Cape Whangaparaoa to the North, and Table Cape to the South. Though his authority was sometimes disputed in the more remote parts of his territory, and bloody conflicts took place between the various tribes, his person was held inviolably sacred by all; and when on more than one occasion he was captured by his opponents, he was invariably treated with the respect due to his rank. Once when quite a youth his followers were completely routed, and fled in wild disorder. The enemy thirsting for blood, and eager to revenge the death of their companions who had fallen

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page (10) (160 English)

in the strife, pressed hard in pursuit; and guided by the foot prints of the retreating and discomfited warriors followed them into the woods and mountain fastnesses. Signs, unmistakeable to the practised eyes of experienced men showed that one at least of the retiring party was fatigued, and unable to keep pace with his more enduring companions. Ere long they espied the object of their search, and we may imagine their surprise, and perhaps disappointment, when they found it was Te Kaniatakirau; who, trusting to his rank, or impelled by that frank courage he often displayed in after life, turned and boldly confronted them. None of that eager band dared to thrust his spear, or strike the captive chieftain with club of war; but closing around him, they escorted him to their leaders by whom he was speedily set free.

He was not however, always so fortunate as to contend with those by whom he was known and respected. A large party of the Ngatimamapoto under the command of Tu-korehu, a Chief of acknowledged bravery, and a number of Ngapuhi led by Te Wera, crossed the country by way of Taupo and made an inroad upon the territories of the Rongowhakaata. The Chiefs of Turanga having received intelligence of their approach, assembled their warriors, and being reinforced by the Ngatikahungunu prepared to repulse their aggressors. The contending parties met on the banks of the Turanga River, where a bloody conflict took place, which resulted in the total defeat of the Rongowhakaata. Taraao, Tamaitipoki, and Tamaitohatohaia the three elder brothers of Te Kani were killed, and he narrowly escaped with his life by jumping into a small canoe and paddling down the River to his own pa. One valuable Mere was taken on this occasion which was named by its captors Paiaka, after the son of Tukorehu who fell in the struggle for it.

Like many other Chiefs of high rank, Te Kani lived in the practice of polygamy; and, at one time, kept no less than ten wives. By these he had several children, all of whom died in infancy with the exception of one son by his principal wife. He, however, was ever of a weak and sickly constitution; and in every way unlike his manly and handsome father. His death, which occurred when he was about eighteen years of age, cast a gloom over Te Kani's mind which time failed to remove; and when after every, and unusual, arrangements had been made for interring the corpse with all the solemnity and display which Maori art and ingenuity

Extract from "Te Karere Maori"

page (9) (175 Maori)

A Te-kani-a-takirau me ana whainga me


Kua waru pea tekau nga tau …

Extract from "Te Karere Maori"

page (10) (176 Maori)

Ko te Kaniatakirau te tino rangatira …

Note: The above 2 pages from manuscript (Maori) have not been included.