The Ancient History of the Maori, His Mythology and Traditions. Nga-Puhi [Vol. XI]
Chapter XVIII — Building of O-pito Pa, Murders and Wars That Followed (Nga-ti-haua)
Building of O-pito Pa, Murders and Wars That Followed (Nga-ti-haua)
I wish to find o friends an apron
For my own use, I have not one,
My war girdle is with Te-pehi
The noble looking man.
O that his face would beam on me
As now I hear no echo
To the sigh I often give
Within my longing heart.
I knew about the building of the Opito Pa. It was built long after the fighting of Nga-ti-te-ata and Nga-ti-tama-oho at Tauranga-ruru. That fight was after the feast at Remuwera. The first peacemaking after Taumata-wiwi was by Matiu Tohi, and Te-Wharau. They went from Hauraki to Matamata. I can't give the date but I know it was the first. The Nga-ti-haua fired guns in the air when they came. This was before O-ngari. I am not sure whether before or after Hauarahi. I can't recollect whether it was before or after Te-Uira. I am not sure whether it was before or after Wai-harakeke. It was after Matamata. I was present when Matiu Tohi, and Te-Wharau came. It was the thought of Marutuahu as they went from Hauraki. No-one had gone from Nga-ti-haua to ask them. They came to Matamata and Nga-ti-haua fired over their heads with bale. The people of the place said "Haere mai i runga i te whakaaro………." Te-Waha-roa was not there. I don't know where he was or whether he was alive or dead. If it was after Wai-harakeke, Te-Waha-roa must have been dead. Tohi stood up and said "He had come to make peace." Nga-ti-haua agreed to his word. Te Tiwha, Matamata and Te-Kaka, my father and others were the chiefs of Nga-ti-haua. We agreed to peace and then Te-Wharau got up, and said "Give me my land." That is all he said. Te Kaka got up and tied a string to a stick and chanted a Maori fishing incantation, which is this, and is but a part only:
"Te toke, te toke toia atu ki waho,
E hi ana, e rawe ana
E taki ana to."
The worm, the worm, drag it outside
But take my bait,
We are fishing, we are pleased
And we are bringing the fish.
After repeating the incantation Te Kaka said "We will not give you the land." This is all I heard, I went away elsewhere. Matiu Tohi, went back to Hauraki. Peace was made.page (242)
Nga-ti-haua did not return the visit by going back with Toki, not until Pakau-rangi came from Hauraki. Tamati Te Tiwha and I went to Hauraki with him, also Kereama and his mother, of Nga-ti-haua. We went to Te-Puau and Hiku-taia. This was in return of the visits of Nga-ti-maru. This was after Te-Uira and after Haua-rahi. I don't know whether the Pakau-rangi's visit was before Wai-harakeke or not. The peace was not disturbed at Wai-hou after the visit of Pakau-rangi, but it was afterwards at Tauranga. I know now - Pakau-rangi's visit was after Wai-harakeke and Hau-raki. I saw Pakaurangi when he went up. It was at Matamata. We went to Te Pirau we saw them. Te Awhi and Te-Uri-wha tribes. We went on to Hiku-taia. All the Nga-ti-maru were then working at a mill-race for Mr Caskill. This visit of ours was before O-ngare. After this there was a dispute among Nga-i-te-rangi about Katikati. Te Whanake said "He would bring Taraia's head onto his Pa." O-ngare followed. Te Tiwha went to Tauranga. I went too. Nga-i-te-rangi told us that Te-Whanake had been killed on his own land. Te-Tiwha said as Taraia had began to cause trouble in Tauranga - let us fight. He sang a song to call all the people to fight Taraia. We went to Matamata. A man named Nga-rata was living at Okauia. We were related to Nga-ti-haua and Waikato. He used to go between Matamata and Hauraki. After the song we went to Hauraki to Te Awhe and chanted the song of Te Tiwha. Te Awhe saw he would be attacked two ways. Te Tiwha and Waikato from Wai-ha, and Nga-i-te-rangi from Kahakaha - so he said to Ngarata - "Go back to page (243)Te Tiwha, ask him to send one of his young men that we and Taraia may know his thoughts, but you Ngarata come back." I only heard of this. My father went to Nga-hina-pouri on account of what Te-Awhi had said. Nga-rata said - "I have repeated your song to Te-Awhe, and he concluded that you intended to send an army down Wai-hou. I repeated your song to Te Awhe, and he wished you to send one of your young men in order that we may make peace on the river Wai-hou." Then Te Tiwha said to my father "You go and say let there be no fighting on this river, let the fighting be at Katikati. Set the war-party to avenge the death of Te Whanake go by Kahakaha and Opito." My father, Pukerahaki, and the others went on to Nga-hina-pouri. I did not go but I heard peace was made. This going of Pukerahaki and the others was in consequence of Te-Awhi's message to Te Tiwha. Te Rauhihi, Te Awhe, Te Waihoke and others of Nga-ti-tama-te-ra visited us after this. They came to Matamata. They came as before to cause our thoughts to be united. The visit of Nga-ti-paoa of Mohi Te Harare, was after Matiu Tohe. I don't know whether Tamehana was at Nga-hina-pouri. After the peace between Nga-ti-maru and our people (Matiu Tohe's) the Nga-ti-paoa went up to make peace by way of Pi-ako. The first party of Nga-ti-paoa was that of Hoera who was fired at.
The first peace was those of Nga-ti-maru - Matiu Tohi. The second Hoera of Nga-ti-haua. 30 went up with Hoera with two women of Nga-ti-haua. A bale grazed Hoera's hair. Hoera went up after Wai-harakeke, and Te Uira, and after Haua-rahi. When Hoera and party got to Matamata they talked about other matters and then about peace. Nga-ti-haua page (244)agreed to make peace. Nga-ti-paoa returned to Hauraki. There were no Roman Catholics of Nga-ti-raukawa there. I don't know of any Nga-ti-raukawa being there at all. I heard what Mohi Te Ara-rei said about converting the Roman Catholics. I did not see any there. There were none there. The Nga-ti-haua had become great believers at this time, and Mr Brown had gone but there were no Pikipo's there and no Nga-ti-raukawa.
Hoera's visit was not returned. Afterwards Hauauru and Haora Tipa, of Nga-ti-paoa, with Paora went up, about 50 in all - that was when Tamati Tangiteruru went up. They said they had gone up to make peace. This was the second peacemaking of Nga-ti-paoa, and it was agreed to. At the time of their visit my matua's (elders) gave them a canoe called "Marutuahu" which we had made on the land - between Waiharakeke and Te Uira - we made this canoe. Wi Tamehana was strong in putting down fighting parties, and when the peacemaking took place this canoe was left unfinished. It was called Marutuahu because it was built to fight against the Marutuahu people. I and others destroyed it during the Wai-kato war. It was made at Matamata. Haora and his people saw this canoe lying outside of our Pa at Matamata and they asked for it. It was not given. Piki-wahine was the name of the canoe given to them instead. I never heard of a canoe having been taken because it was built at Manawa-ru.
I heard that Nga-ti-haua were dubbing a canoe or canoes on Manawa-ru - they were Kereama Karauria, and others. I know of a canoe called Te Toki-a-tamaru. That canoe was made at Matamata. It was taken overland to Wai-hou page (245)and was sold - I heard it was sold to Taraia for sugar by Wi Tamehana, Reone and others. We have not many old people among us now who were at Taumata-wiwi, they are dead or among the Hauhaus. Nga-ti-haua did not lose a great many in the war in Waikato, at Taranaki they lost a great many. This is why we can't bring many old men to speak about Taumata-wiwi. Hakihaki is close to Pua-pua-tirohia, on the range. Our east boundary of our land is Wai-tawheta, Ngatukituki, Rangi-taua, Hakihaki, turns west Pua-pua-tirohia, on to Hua-karamu. The west boundary runs along the Manga-paui swamp to Te Rua-pa.page (246)
How came you to know the south boundary if you did not know the north? Mr Maeby told me.
I heard about Takurua's murder. Takurua had not been living long at Maungakawa before he was killed. He had a Pa at Kai-puka. Had he that Pa before Kaiaruhe? I don't know. He went to live at Maungakawa after Kai-aruhe.
Was the Pa built before or after he went? I don't know when the Pa was built. I only know he had a Pa at Kaipuka. It is possible he had a Pa there before Kaiaruhe.
Did Te Waharoa invite him to Maunga-kawa? I don't know of that.
Maunga-kawa belongs to Nga-ti-haua. Marutuahu put the heads of the killed in the water we were drinking, were they not dipped in Horotiu or Maungakawa. They were then taken to Ka-wehi-tiki. This I heard from my elders as I was away from the battle field at the time.
Who told you? All my matua's. You did not see the heads brought? No. I was away.
Warning was given to Takurua before he was killed. Te Waharoa was at Tauranga at the time of the murder of Takurua.
Did Te Waharoa leave instructions that if Takurua did not obey the warning he should be killed? No.
The principal chiefs who killed Takurua were page (247)Te-Tiwha, Te-Iro-nui and Te-Are.
Did they tell Te Waharoa they intended to kill him? No.
What did Te Waharoa say when he came back? He remained at Tauranga some time and his heart was pouri. He waited for us to be destroyed by Marutuahu - on the contrary they were wounded at Manutu.
Have you told us of all the fights before Taumatawiwi? Yes.
Putoetoe was a fight of Nga-ti-ruru and Nga-ti-haua.
Were they not killed at Putoetoe? Yes, eight were killed and only one of Nga-ti-maru.
What fight did that follow ? At the same time as the death of the old man at Hukanui. Manutu was after that.
There was another fight at Tauhei, where the old man was killed.
Did you not call that Hikauri. Is not Tauhei near Hangawera?
There were some women killed at Tauhei.
Were there not twenty Nga-ti-haua killed at Tauhi? I don't know.
I heard they were all women killed at Tauhi, as it was not a battle but a "huaki" (attack) on women same as at Wai-harakeke.
Nga-ti-haua lost Taurara, Tautoro, Te-Papa and Miro at Hukanui. The first three but Miro was a Nga-ti-raukawa. Patene-Ruhata shot them.
How many more did Nga-ti-haua lose?
These were chiefs but there were other slaves killed there. I don't know how many. The Nga-ti-haua and Nga-ti-maru eel catching at Huka-nui or Manutu and their scouts met and fired on each other page (248)and Te-Whata was the first killed.
Was not Patene Puata partly Nga-ti-haua? Yes, he was the first killed.
Patene Puata partly Nga-ti-haua. He was taken prisoner at Huka-nui and was spared because of relationship. He did not go over to see his relations. He was captured. I was there at the time. I am quite sure that we did not run at Hukanui. Three women were killed by Nga-ti-maru at Ka-wehi-tiki. The Nga-ti-haua recovered the bodies, but Nga-ti-maru had cut off the heads. A fight at Inoi-hinau killed two of Nga-ti-maru. Marutuahu attacked us on account of Takurua's murder. I saw the two killed and hung up on a tree. I don't know whether one was a Nga-ti-whatua. I do not know if one of the two hung up a madman of Nga-ti-whatua.
Was there not a fight at Mangarara you have not told the Court about?
Do you know where Hakiakiaki and Teko? I heard at Mangawhero. What month was Taumatawiwi? I don't know exactly - the 9th or 10th Maori months or later still.
Was it not in the winter? All I know is that at Takurua's death the potatoes were well up.
Hukanui was the last fight before Taumatawiwi. Huka-nui as a great victory for the Nga-ti-haua and they got all the dead of their enemy.
After that you went to Taumatawiwi? Yes, Nga-ti-haua were strong enough to cope with all Marutuahu. The Marutuahu fled.
How long was Hukanui before Taumatawiwi?page (249)
Not a year, I think it was more than six months.
Had Nga-ti-haua been weakened between Hukanui and Taumatawiwi? No, not either by war or disease, and we went at once to fight at Taumatawiwi. The Waikato and Nga-i-te-rangi joined us at Taumata-wiwi but Te Waharoa brought them there.
You did not bring Waikato? We are all one. At Taumatawiwi the fighting commenced with Nga-ti-haua.
Why did you get Waikato and Ngaiterangi?
Whakaehe was a chief of Waikato who had been killed before.
Why did the three armies join? Was it arranged? Yes.
It was arranged that all three tribes should join to destroy Marutuahu.
At the subdivision of the Aroha did you give Waikato any of it? No land was given to them - they knew we were on it. I do not know that any was set apart for Waikato.
For Ngaiterangi? No.
Would it be right for Ngaiterangi and Waikato to claim on the Aroha now ? Yes, but it would be for me to admit them.
Because they did not occupy the land? Yes.
Is that Maori law ? Yes.
Is that Maori law if conquest is not followed by occupation there is no claim?
You said that at Taumatawiwi Te Waharoa said: "Nga-ti-paoa, I am here, I shall join the Waikato." No, what I said was this "Nga-ti-paoa, I am here, ………. will be on the side page (250)of the Waikato river" - this was that Nga-ti-paoa might know where to find him.
How many were killed at Taumatawiwi of Nga-ti-haua, Waikato, and Ngaiterangi? I only know we the Nga-ti-haua lost upwards of 30.
These three tribes joined to destroy Nga-ti-maru, and when you saw the women and children escaping from the Pa we did not attempt to destroy them. The reason was - as they were going out at one side a man of ours was killed, and his companions retreated to the Rei-roa, and then it was dark - the greater number of us were absent cutting up the dead bodies of the enemy on the battle field. It was the braves of the army who followed up Nga-ti-maru. The shooting of the man frightened them who were pursuing and they fled to the Rei-roa.
Was not Waikato grieved after Taumatawiwi that they had come so far and done so little! I did not hear.
Were not your people "pouri" because they had not succeeded in destroying Marutuahu? I do not know.
I went to Kawehitiki with the party that took the dead.
How long after Taumatawiwi? I don't know, three or four days.
Did you take bodies or heads?
We took the heads of a number of those who fell, some were left. We took two dead bodies.page (251)
Wi Tamehana was going to Hauraki as he had quarrelled with his wives and he was going to commit suicide and with the expectation of being killed by the Hauraki people, or by Nga-ti-tumutumu in consequence of Ngaehe having been killed by Te-Waha-roa, his father.
Te-Whare-nui gave a cask of tobacco and two dogskin mats to the men who brought Wi Tamehana back according to a Maori custom.
(About Taumatawiwi) You remember the two women coming? Yes. Did they cry over the dead? I did not see. How many dead did you get of Marutuahu? I think about twenty.
We got of Marutuahu about twenty.
Did you eat any of them that night? Yes some. Did they cut them all up that night?
We ate some of them that night. Those that were killed at a distance were cut up where they fell. Those killed near were dragged whole to the camp. The whole were cut up the same night.
Did any remain whole the next morning? No, none.
I did not see any whole next morning. Is it Maori custom for the relations to cry over heads? Yes.
What was done with the Nga-ti-maru heads?
Some of the Nga-ti-maru heads were "mokomokokaitia" (dried out heads). I can't say what the other hapu's did with theirs.
Do you know what was done with the dead bodies in the hands of other hapu's? No.
Why did you say all were cut up?
I know that all the dead were cut up because the custom is to cut up and divide the bodies of the slain.
You told us about burning the dead?
Yes the greater number of our own dead were burned - they were all chiefs, only one slave.page (252)
It is a custom for a victorious party to burn their dead. If killed at a wahi ke (strange place). Maungakawa was our place.
Did you take any to Maungakawa? Yes, two. Who were they?
We took two dead bodies to Maungakawa. One was a Nga-ti-kiroki. Mau was the other - a Nga-ti-haua.
Why did you take these two to bury and burn the others? It was the thought.
Were the wives of these two at Kawehitiki? Yes.
Had those burnt no wives? Yes.
Why should they burn all but two - did they not burn them because they were afraid lest Marutuahu should get them? No.
They burnt them instead of burying them lest Marutuahu should dig them up and get them.
Had Nga-ti-haua, Ngaiterangi, and Waikato no tangi over their dead? Yes the religious "tangi". When?
In a time of fight when a Maori's relative is killed he cries in secret. There was no public tangi. There was a tangi before the bodies were burnt. No public tangi, each wept over his dead.
Was there a tangi next day? I did not see one.
The dead were not collected - each hapu (sub-tribe) had its dead and cried over them. Tiraki Te Tonga cried over her own dead relatives after the peacemaking.page (253)
After Taumatawiwi if Marutuahu had caught a Nga-ti-haua catching eels on the Aroha what would they have done before this peace? I don't know what their thoughts would be after Taharoku's peace.
Did Taharoku's peace continue up to this peace?
Taharoku's peace was one and Tohio was one. Marutuahu broke Taharoku's peace by the murder of Kumete. It was not broken by Waikato murdering Te Horeta. Marutuahu and Ngapuhi broke it by killing Kumete.
Horete had been murdered before that? I don't know about Horeta.
Did Hauarahi take place before Hauraki fled? After.page (254)
The Nga-ti-hine-rangi and Nga-ti-tawhaki formerly fight against Nga-ti-haua and kill 200 of our people. They fought against my tupuna's (ancestors). I don't know about the 200 killed.
Did Nga-ti-haua get payment?
For that we got payment. We fought and got from them the land we now live on, viz: Matamata.