A Bibliography of Printed Maori to 1900
As far as is known, the first work devoted wholly to the Maori language was the little book, A Korao, complied by Thomas Kendall in 1815, when he had not been twelve months in the country. When he sent it to Sydney to be printed, he wrote to the Rev. S. Marsden, "There are, undoubtedly, many defects in it; but it is good to make a beginning." His estimate was correct: the Maori used would hardly be recognized as such; but it was a beginning. Five years later he was able to help Professor Lee at Cambridge in drawing up the Grammar which established the alphabet on a scientific basis, and from that date, we may say, it was possible to proceed with a Maori literature. That literature, in addition to a large number of leaflets and pamphlets, now embraces valuable translations into Maori, original compositions by Maoris as well as by European scholars, collections of ancient legends, esoteric lore, songs and proverbs, statutes, periodical publications, and school books. It may be questioned whether any other Polynesian race has its language so well represented in print.
During the first thirty years the Missions—Anglican, Wesleyan, and Roman—were responsible for almost the whole of the output. About the close of that period the Wesleyan and Roman Mission presses ceased to operate, and the Paihia press was removed to St. John's College, Tamaki, where printing became rather a by-product of that institution, and, even before the press was ultimately disposed of, not a little of the Church printing had been done by outside firms. It would appear, however, that with proper organization it might have been wiser to have maintained the press on a business footing, for, as it is, not less than 45 per cent. of the items recorded were from the presses of the Anglican Mission, or in connexion with its work; and about another 10 per cent. would have to be added for the other Missions.
It was necessary, even from the earliest days, that many Government papers, such as Proclamations, Gazette notices, and Acts of Parliament, should be translated into Maori; but in addition to these the Government, following the lead of Sir G. Grey, has shown its interest in the Native population by bringing out, from time to time, translations of various improving works, such as Pilgrim's Progress and Robinson Crusoe, while there is evidence that the publication of other works of a similar character was contemplated, though the work was never completed. Several, also, of the Maori newspapers were, for a time at least, under the control of the Government or enjoyed its benevolent patronage. In all, somewhat over 25 per cent. of the works here recorded may be classed as Government publications. The remaining 20 per cent. were works of a miscellaneous character, many of them being political.
Turning from the nature of the material to the sources of production, we find, as might be expected, that the greater part is the product of presses working in New Zealand, less than 10 per cent. coming from outside the Dominion.page viii
Communication with the outside world was, at first, generally through "the Colony," and this explains the fact that most of the very early works were printed in Sydney. The establishment of their own presses by the Church Mission and the Wesleyan Mission soon gave to them the preponderance in the output, and they were followed at no long interval by professional printers.
The printing of the Bible and Prayer Book by societies at Home gave the lead in outside presses to England, with sixty-six items, nearly all of which were printed in London. Twelve items were printed in Sydney, five at Lyons, three at Cape Town, and one each at Berlin, Cooranbong (N.S.W.), Hobart, Jena, Paris, Rome, Turnhout (Belgium), and Utah.
As is now well known, the Rev. W. Yate, in 1830, brought over to Kerikeri a small press from Sydney, where he had secured the services of a youth named Smith, who had had a little training in printing. A Catechism and a few hymns are all that are known to have come from this press. The press was apparently soon discarded, and found its way back to Sydney in the possession of Mr. Benjamin Isaacs, a printer who had been working at Kororareka, in the Bay of Islands. The authority for this statement is a pamphlet by the Rev. Dr. Woolls, entitled A Short Account of the Life and Labours of the Rev. Samuel Marsden (Parramatta, 1844), quoted by Hocken, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxiii, p. 479.
Printing began seriously with the arrival in New Zealand of Colenso and the Church Mission press on December 30, 1834. The press was set up at Paihia, and the first book printed was a translation of the Epistles to the Ephesians and the Philippians. The history of the press was one of varying fortunes, and the sources of information for this history are very scanty. Colenso kept an Office Diary, now in the Alexander Turnbull Library, which at first sight appears to be meticulously accurate. But it does not go back earlier than 1836, and careful inspection reveals the fact that many of the entries were made much later than the dates given, and there are many serious omissions. A little information may be gleaned from reports to the Church Missionary Society, and for the rest recourse must be had to imprints of books and pamphlets in English and Maori. The late Mr. E. J. Von Dadelszen, who had worked at the press at St. Stephen's a little while before joining Mr. Gorst at Otawhao in 1863, informed the writer that it was a demy Columbia press. During Colenso's connexion with it (1835-42) the output was well maintained and considerable — most of it in Maori. It included some thirty-six items in Maori, the sizes varying from a single leaf to the New Testament (356 pages), and the numbers of each issued from 70 to 20,000; with the exception of a few Government notices, all were for the purposes of the Mission. Under Telford, Colenso's successor, fourteen items were issued from Paihia, including the first edition of the Maori Dictionary. In 1845 Bishop Selwyn moved his headquarters and his College of St. John from Waimate, in the Bay of Islands, to the present site of the College, at Tamaki, near Auckland, and he took with him the press which had recently been presented to him by the Church Missionary Society. The imprints on Maori books for the next decade are given as from Purewa (one Tamaki) or Te Kareti (the College), and describe the press sometimes as the Mission Press, sometimes as the Bishop's, occasionally as the College Press. The latest date at which the imprint is given from the College is 1856, up to which year some fifty Maori items had been produced there. Some time subsequently the press was removed to St. Stephen's School, Parnell, but no record has been found of page ixthe date of the removal, or statement as to whether it was moved direct there from the College, During 1860-61 three works in English appeared printed in "Auckland, at the Melanesian Press." It is possible that a proposal had been made to hand the press over to the Melanesian Mission, but that another press was subsequently secured for that Mission. During the years 1845-53, and possibly later, the Bishop had issued Church almanacs in English with the imprint, "Bishop's Auckland: Printed at the College Press." From 1862 to 1869 these almanacs bear the imprint, "Auckland: Printed at the Cathedral Press." The imprint of the reports of the Auckland Synod during the latter years is the same, but changes in 1870 to "St. Stephen's School Press." Nothing is known of any independent "Cathedral Press," and it would seem that this imprint refers to the old Mission Press on its first removal from St. John's College. From 1868 to 1874 the place of issue is given variously as "Akarana," "Tipene" (St. Stephen's), or "Taurarua" (the Maori name for Judge's Bay), and the press described as the St. Stephen's School Press, the printers being A. J. Nikorahi (Nicholas), 1868-69, and Henry Hill, 1869-74. Hill was printing the Wananga in Hawke's Bay, August, 1874, and the accounts of the Native School Trust for the year ending June 30, 1875, contain the entry, "Sale of printing-press, &c., £142 14s. 4d.," and, as the sale was made by one of the auctioneering firms in Auckland, the purchaser cannot now be traced, and the entry must be taken as closing the history of this interesting press, the first fully equipped press to be set up in New Zealand.
The Wesleyan Mission Press was set up at Mangungu, on the Hokianga River, during the latter part of 1836, the earliest product noted being a ticket in Maori dated December in that year. Very little information is available as to the history of the press, which put forth some thirty items up to 1845, after which date most of the printing for the Mission was executed by Williamson, of Auckland. The most important work issued was the Gospel story told in extracts from the four Gospels (120 pages). Prayer Books, Catechisms, pastoral letters, and lesson books made up the balance. No records have been traced of the numbers issued of the various editions, but it was probably high, as an entry in the diary of the late Rev. J. Hobbs mentions the printing of 10,000 copies of his translation of the Book of Job.
Only the most meagre details can be learned as to the press of the Roman Mission. The Mission arrived at Hokianga on January 10, 1838, and Bishop Pompallier complains, in his History of the Catholic Church in Oceania, of the disadvantage under which the Mission laboured through having no printing-press. But under the date September, 1839, he mentions the printing of two or three items. This was shortly after his removal to Kororareka, in the Bay of Islands; and it seems probable that the press had been brought from France in the schooner "Reine de Paix," which had recently arrived with supplies for the Mission. Only seven items from the press have been noticed: these are of various dates from 1839 to 1847, one, Te Ako me te Karakia, being a volume of 646 pages. Hocken states that "this press was sold amongst the early fifties to the New Zealander newspaper" (Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxiii, p. 486). The type was used in printing the Karere Maori from January, 1856, onwards, and was mistaken by Hocken for that presented some years later to the Maoris by the Emperor of Austria (H., Bibl., p. 97).
Bishop Selwyn brought out with him a small press, which he set up at Waimate, printing being one of the industries contemplated for his College of St. John. In addition to a leaflet or two, nine booklets in Maori have page xbeen observed with the imprint of the Bishop's Press, Waimate. These are all of the dates 1843-44, the most ambitious being a primer of fifty-four pages. As has been mentioned above, the Church Missionary Society presented the Paihia press to Bishop Selwyn when he moved St. John's College from Waimate to its present site near Auckland. It seems unlikely that he would require both presses at Auckland, and it has been conjectured that he sent his smaller press to Kaitaia, in the far north, for the use of the missionaries stationed there. The following facts may have a bearing on the question: Mr. W. G. Puckey had spent from May to September, 1844, at Waimate, assisting in the revision of the translation of the Prayer Book, and returned to Kaitaia on September 27; nothing is known to have issued from Waimate after that date, and the Kaitaia Press began operating early in 1845. The latter press was managed by Mr. Puckey, who reports to the Church Missionary Society towards the close of 1846 that "several little works have lately been printed by a Native at my press…. We are not well off for type, only being able to print two pages at a time." (C.M. Record, 1848, p. 170.) A series of weekly sermon notes and a few small pamphlets were issued from this station. Mr. W. Puckey, of Remuera, believes that the press was burnt when his father's house was destroyed by fire. If the conjecture mentioned as to the identity of this with the Waimate press is correct, it would throw doubt on Mr. Harding's surmise, mentioned by Hocken (Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxii, p. 490), that the Bishop's press had come into his possession.
Mr. W. Colenso, the first printer at Paihia, was ordained deacon by Bishop Selwyn in 1844, and stationed at Heretaunga, Hawke's Bay. He soon procured a small press for himself, from which he issued, before his connexion with the Mission closed in 1852, a number of leaflets and pamphlets, chiefly for the purposes of his own personal work among the Maoris. The most important of these was a description of various Christian death-bed scenes, which ran to 132 pages, printed on single leaflets, but was never completed or published. This press was bequeathed by Colenso to the late Mr. R. C. Harding, of Wellington, and is now in the possession of the writer.
The press provided by the Government for the use of Mr. Gorst at Otawhao should strictly be regarded as a private press. As far as is known, nothing was printed on it beyond the five numbers of the Pihoihoi Mokemoke. The history of the press closed with that of the paper in 1863. Particulars of the demolishing of the press by the Maoris are given in Gorst's Maori King, and in the parliamentary papers of the date.
After the visit of the "Novara" Expedition to New Zealand, in 1858-59, the Emperor of Austria presented a press and type to the Maoris as a recognition of his appreciation of certain services rendered by them to the expedition. The press found its way to Ngaruawahia, where it was used for the printing of the Hokioi, the official organ of Potatau, the Maori "king." The imprints of the paper frequently record the fact that it had been produced on the "press presented by the King of Austria." The first number of Aotearoa, one of Mr. C. O. Davis's Maori papers, has the imprint, "Perehi o nga iwi Maori" (Press of the Maori people). This may perhaps refer to the same press, or it may be a mere figure of speech.
In 1897 a press was established at Te Rau Maori College, Gisborne, which was used for the purposes of the Mission, its most important productions being an annual Church almanac in Maori, and a monthly periodical, Te Pipiwharauroa.page xi
A history of all the regular presses from which works in Maori have issued would be beyond the scope of the present work, but a list of printers, private and professional, has been drawn up and is printed in the appendix.
Not a few libraries have been formed by individuals and institutions in which especial attention has been devoted to literature having relation to New Zealand; but, owing no doubt to a want of acquaintance with the Maori language, most collectors have rather neglected the section in that language. Fortunately Sir G. Grey had a very wide range of interest, and during his first period as Governor he made a very valuable collection of early works in Maori, which he deposited in the South African Public Library at Cape Town. On his return to New Zealand he again set to work on a second collection, and was fortunate in securing representative assortments of various classes of Maori literature. These he placed in the Auckland Public Library. Following him, Dr. Hocken became known as an indefatigable collector. He devoted much attention to the Maori portion of his collection, which is now in the Hocken Library at Dunedin. The library of Mr. A. H. Turnbull was very complete in this department, he having secured specimens of some rarities which had eluded his predecessors. This collection he bequeathed to the Dominion, and it is now housed in the Alexander Turnbull Library in Wellington. The late Mr. C. A. Ewen, of Wellington, also had in his library not a few works in Maori. The Mitchell Library, in Sydney, though outside the Dominion, has a considerable number. Mr. Colenso was perhaps not, in so many words, a collector, but he was one who never destroyed a paper or pamphlet, and, arriving in New Zealand in 1834, he became possessed of all, or nearly all, the early publications. Unfortunately, the contents of his library were, on his death, allowed to be dissipated by sale and by pure neglect. Some found their way to the Mitchell Library, some to the libraries of collectors in New Zealand; but a large number of pamphlets and leaflets, many of them of the highest interest, were treated as waste paper, and it is feared that many of the greatest rarity have been lost. In addition to these known collections, there are doubtless others in unsuspected places. From time to time one of these may come to light, or a forgotten package of some booklet be unearthed, and the distribution of these may alter materially the coefficient of rarity of some work.
It is by no means easy to ascertain the factors which make for rarity. The Maori—still an untutored savage during the early part of our period — could hardly be expected to be a model librarian, and the books printed for him, particularly those which appealed to him most strongly, were used, and perished in the using. Issues of 10,000, or even 20,000, of works which are seldom met with were put out by the Paihia Press; while copies may more readily be obtained of others, equally old, of which no more than 100 were printed. One class of publications which has hitherto received very little attention is that of Acts of Parliament. It is a matter of surprise that Sir G. Grey, for whom nothing in Maori seemed too insignificant, should not have laid some of these by in either of the collections he made, but as far as can be ascertained neither he nor any later collector has done so; and the destruction by fire in 1890 of the old Government Printing Office, which was then used as a store, makes it now exceedingly difficult to obtain copies of the earlier Acts, or even to ascertain what Acts were issued in Maori. Some of the short-lived Maori periodicals which were initiated from time to time are also very rare; in fact, of many of them it may be doubted whether any copies survive.page xii
The earliest detailed description of works printed in Maori was in Bleek's catalogue of Sir G. Grey's library at Cape Town (Philology, vol. ii, part iv). This volume, though not intended as such, was the first serious contribution to the bibliography of New Zealand, and the part dealing with Maori is particularly valuable. Nine-tenths of the printed matter there dealt with is in Maori, and most of the items are described with great exactness. The catalogue has prefixed to it a tabulated statement showing the number of items it contains. The items are grouped in folios, quartos, &c., with the total number of leaves of each size. A comparison of the table with the contents of the catalogue shows that the enumeration of the former reckons every number of the Karere Maori and every leaflet as a separate publication, and groups them all in the inexact category of "books." The use of this designation misled Sir George Grey himself into the statement that "the collection contained 301 printed volumes" (Polynesian Mythology, 2nd ed., p. xv). Davis noted that, according to the table, 132 classed as folios contained only 264 leaves, and concluded that the balance, averaging 26 leaves, might fairly be considered as books; but a further 23 of these were of not more than eight pages. References to entries in Bleek's catalogue are indicated in the present work by the letter G, followed by the catalogue number.
Dr. Thomson appended to the second volume of his Story of New Zealand a chronological bibliography which contains 412 entries, but these include only twenty which come within the scope of the present work. In these twenty there are, however, points to be noted, some of them clearly errors. He assigns the Prayer Book of 1840 to London, instead of Paihia. Under the entry of Williams's Dictionary in 1844, he mentions the second edition of 1852, but he does not include it in his list; but he has an entry in 1857 of an edition put forth by Stanford of which nothing more is known. In 1848 he lists a "Pocket Vocabulary of Colloquial Maori and English; By Lacy Kemp, Esq." This no doubt refers to some work by H. Tacy Kemp, the well-known. Maori scholar, but none has been noticed bearing this title. This entry is repeated by Davis. Thomson also wrongly assigns Te Karere Maori to 1848 instead of 1849.
J. D. Davis, in his Contribution to a Bibliography of New Zealand (1887), disclaims any attempt "to enumerate the many volumes which have been published in the Maori tongue," but he describes or mentions over thirty of them. He acknowledges his indebtedness to Thomson, whom he follows in some errors. He makes some curious blunders, such as mistaking the imprint of Te Pihoihoi Mokemoke for the title of another Maori paper. He was in touch with Hocken, and, though they agree in mistranslating "Te Ao Marama" as "The New World," their entries in regard to it would appear to be independent.
Collier does not admit into his Literature relating to New Zealand (1889), any work actually in the Maori language, and records only twenty-five items which are included in the present work.
* Two or three Maori items appear in the main portion of the work, most of them having a reference from the Maori section.
A few special classes of books demand some detailed notice. Omitting the Lord's Prayer, which had been printed in Lee and Kendall's Grammar in 1820, and again separately at Darlington in 1827, the earliest portions of the Bible printed were a few chapters in a little book which appeared in Sydney in 1827; new and enlarged editions of this book followed in 1830 and 1833. In 1835 the Paihia Press began operations, and the New Testament was issued complete at the end of 1837. The publication was then taken over by the British and Foreign Bible Society, which had made a money grant towards the production of the Paihia edition; and editions followed in 1841, 1842, 1844, 1852, 1862, 1887, 1894, and 1897. In addition to these, portions were issued from time to time, with or without commentary. Progress with the Old Testament was far less rapid. Authorized translations of portions, mainly by the Rev. R. Maunsell, were put forth from the Mission Press at various dates from 1840 to 1856. These early translations were not of consecutive portions, but shortly after 1846 the parts so far dealt with were pieced together and issued in a volume comprising the books from Genesis to Joshua. From time to time the books dealt with were revised, and an amended translation sent to the Bible Society, which issued, as the material was available, three volumes in 1848, 1855, and 1858 respectively, the latter completing the Old Testament. The whole Bible was issued in London ten years later, and a second edition with a revised translation brought out in 1887.
Portions of Morning and Evening Prayer were printed at Sydney in 1830 and 1833 in the books already referred to, and in 1839 the Paihia Press issued a little volume containing an arrangement of Morning and Evening Prayer with the Litany and twelve pages of hymns. This was reprinted, with slight alterations, in 1840, 1842, 1844, and 1850. The complete Prayer Book, with the title-page dated 1840, was issued at the end of 1841, in one edition only. After that date the publication was undertaken by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, which produced its first edition in 1848. This printed only the references for the Epistles and Gospels, but in 1850 the volume appeared complete, and from that date there have been a large number of editions and reprints. The Wesleyan Mission brought out its first Prayer Book at Mangungu in 1839. The second edition followed in 1841, and since then there have been six editions, all printed in Auckland, the latest dated 1894.
The books printed in Sydney in 1827, 1830, and 1833 contained seven, nineteen, and twenty-seven hymns respectively. Thirty hymns formed a part of the 1839 Prayer Book, and thereafter the hymns used by the Anglican Mission were issued separately, or, more correctly, were printed with separate pagination. The number of hymns was gradually raised to fifty-six, and the little pamphlets, by various printers, containing them were generally used as insets to the Prayer Book. In 1883 Mr. R. C. Harding, page xivof Napier, printed and published for the Mission a little volume containing 172 hymns: there have since been several editions of this collection. The earliest Wesleyan Prayer Book contained thirty hymns, the number being frequently added to, until the total of 114 was reached in 1894. In addition to the above, there have been printed other small collections of hymns and not a few leaflets containing each a single hymn, while the service books of the Roman Mission also include a few.
Journalism has played an important part in the development of the Maori race. In all, some twenty-nine periodicals in Maori were started during the nineteenth century. Of these, five would appear to have been run by the Maoris themselves. The most notable is Te Hokioi, the official organ of the Maori "king," Potatau, which appeared at irregular intervals, and in constantly varying form, for two or three years from 1861. It was succeeded after a long interval by Te Paki o Matariki, which was issued, also very irregularly, by Tawhiao during the ten years beginning with 1891. Te Puke ki Hikurangi, a Wairarapa paper, was established in 1897, and ran for many years. Te Wananga, which was run by Hawke's Bay Maoris in opposition to Te Waka Maori, then under Government control, lasted from. 1874 to 1878. Of the papers run for the benefit of the Maoris perhaps the most important was Te Karere Maori, which first appeared as Te Karere o Nui Tireni in 1842, and continued, with a break of three years (1846-49), and with various changes of style and form, to the year 1863. During part, at any rate, of its existence it was under Government patronage, the imprint describing it as "printed for the Government." Te Waka Maori, begun in 1863 as a private venture, was taken under Government control from 1871 to 1878, when it passed again to private management, and ceased publication in 1879. A final attempt to revive it in 1884 came to an end after the issue of sixteen numbers. Te Pihoihoi Mokemoke (1863), though it ran to only five numbers, is important as an attempt to counteract the evil effects of the Hokioi. Te Kahili, the Maori Gazette, has been issued by the Government, as required, since 1865. Te Haeata (1859-62), Te Korimako (1882-88), Te Pipiwharauroa (1898-1913), Te Hoa Maori (1885-92), were publications of a more or less definitely religious character. Te Tiupiri ran from 1898 to 1900, Te Karere o Poneke to fifty-eight numbers, while Te Ao Marama (two numbers), Te Korimako Hou, Takitimu, Matariki, Te Waka o te Iwi, and Te Whetu o te Tau do not appear to have lasted a year—several, in fact, not surviving beyond a second number.
Handbooks for teaching the Maori language have appeared from time to time under a variety of titles. In addition to those styled grammars and dictionaries, there have been First Lessons, First Steps, to Maori conversation and to the Maori language, Manual of Maori Conversation. Maori Phrase Book, How to learn Maori, Korero Maori, and Te Peka o te Kowhai: these not including a number of primers or Pukapuka Whakaako, such as were brought out, by the various Missions and by the Government for the instruction of the Native children.
No other well-defined class of publications seems to demand particularization. There are in all somewhat over 1,200 items dealt with in the present work; of these, 50 per cent. are of not more than four pages, a further 36 per cent. are of not more than forty-eight pages, leaving 14 per cent. of forty-nine pages and upward.
There are here included references to several works which were never completed, though a portion of them had been printed. In 1837 Williams's page xvGrammar and Dictionary was sent to press, and 500 copies of the first twelve pages struck off, when the work was suspended. In 1842 the printing was resumed, and, beginning from the second half-sheet, the whole was set up and printed; but before publication the early impression of the first halfsheet was discarded, and those pages again set up—a process which led to a curious omission of two paragraphs.* Sir G. Grey's so called "unicum" in the Auckland Public Library is in reality only the proofs of twenty-six pages of a grammar by Mr. E. Norris which never saw the light. A second volume of Maori songs collected by Sir G. Grey had progressed in 1857 as far as page 56, and there is in the Auckland Public Library a copy of these pages, with a pencilled memorandum by Grey that this is the only copy in existence. It seems probable that the remainder of the issue was destroyed by fire, and that the work was then abandoned. In 1844 the Church Mission began printing the Old Testament Lessons for Sundays, but when seventy-eight pages had been printed, carrying the Lessons to Eastertide, the work was discontinued. In 1848 another New Zealand edition of the Prayer Book was projected. Clean proofs have been seen of Morning and Evening Prayer, the Litany and most of the Communion Service, but no copy of the completed volume has been found. Colenso had printed on single leaves 132 pages of a work in Maori which he proposed to call "He Matenga Totika," or "Happy Deaths"; but his connexion with the Mission ceased in 1852, and the volume was never completed or published. Bleek's catalogue has entries (Nos. 158, 159) referring to proofs, two and twelve pages respectively, of editions of a translation of Whately's Lessons on Religious Worship, which do not appear to have progressed further. No complete copy has been seen of the large-type collection of hymns (No. 288b), and it may never have been completed; but the point must remain doubtful, as the only copy seen of the small-type edition of the same collection was also incomplete, lacking the earlier pages. A beginning was made, about 1870, with a book of canticles pointed for chanting, which does not seem to have got beyond the first four pages. Only a few specimen pages of Colenso's Maori Lexicon were printed in 1882 and 1898.
* See Nos. 22, 107.